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Lecture 5

SOSC 1350 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Legal Personality


Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1350
Professor
Julie Dowsett
Lecture
5

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 7 pages of the document.
If#the#abstract#rights#of#man#will#bear#discussion#and#explanation,#those#of#woman,#by#
a#parity#of#reasoning,#will#not#shrink#from#the#same#test.
Mary&Wollstonecraft&(1759-1797)
At#the#time#of#the#B.N.A. Act,#[women]#were,#under the common#law,#as#well#as#
underthe civil#law,#relieved#from#the#duties##from the duties of public#office#or#place,#
by#a#general#rule of law,#which#affected#them#[]#with#a personalincapacity#to##accept#
or#perform#such#duties;#and, in particular,#women#were#excluded#by the law#and#
practice of#parliamentary#institutions,#both in England#and in Canada,#and#indeed#in#
the#English#speaking#world,#from#holding#a#place#in#any#legislative#or#deliberative#body,#
and#from#voting#for the election of#a#member of any#such#body.
Supreme&Court&of&Canada&
(Reference#re#Meaning#of#the#Word#“Persons#in#s.#24#of#the#BNA#Act,&1928)&
Equality&Rights&and&the&Intellectual&Roots&of&the&(White,&Middle-Class)&Canadian&
Womans&Movement
Mary&Wollstonecraft,&A#Vindication#of#the#Rights#of#Woman#(1792)
a.
In&part,&was&a&response&to&Thomas&Paine's&"The&Rights&of&Man"&(1791);&Pain's&
book&was&a&defense&of&the&French&Revolution;&Wollstonecraft&was&in&broad&
agreement&with&the&"liberty&for&eternity;"&Paine's&term&"man"&literally& means&
man.&
-
In&the&book&she&celebrates&rationality&and&points&out&an&analysis&of&the&social&
construction&of&masculinity
-
-
Wollstonecraft,&felt&that&the&circumstances&that&shaped&women's&lives&were&the&
laws&and&prejudices&that&excluded&them&from&the&"public&sphere"&
-
For&the&next&200&years,&women&struggled&for&their&rights
-
John&Stuart&Mill,&The#Subjection#of#Women#(1861)&
b.
Fairly&likely&that&his&wife&co-wrote&this&book;&but&he&took&sole&credit.&
-
In&the&subjection&of&women,&made&a&sustained&arguments&for&the&rights&of&
women&(made&a&statement&for&legal&and&political&equality-also&changes&in&social&
attitudes)
-
Women's&access&to&education;&acknowledged&that&it&would&be&a&difficult&task&as&
people&were&working&against&him
-
limitations&of&(liberal)&“equal&rights”&perspectivec.
1.
The&analysis&was&somewhat&lacking.&Basic&legal/political&reform&advocated&by&
Wollstonecraft&and&Mill&have&been&achieved;&yet&position&of&women&remains&
problematic.&Politcal/legal&reforms=not&enough.&Central&question?&&Basic&legal&and&
poltical&equality&does&not&necessarily&lead&to&larger&social&and&economic&equality&or&
the&irradication&of&sexism,&racism,&homophobia,&etc.
i.
Classism;&they&were&concerned&largely&with&women&of&their&class.&The&second&
limitation&has&to&do&with&oblivion&to&the&working&class.&
ii.
Race&and&racism&not&a&matter&of&interest:&iii.
Did&not&consider&how&pregnancy,&childbirth&and&childcare&pose&obstacles&for&economic&
independence:&Early&feminists&didn't&look&at&these&obstacles.&
iv.
limitations&of&this&perspective&can&be&seen&in&the&Canadian&womens&movementd.
Gives&us&an&insight&into&how&early&Canadian&feminists&thought
-
The&“Three&Wave”&Approach&to&the&Canadian&Womens&Movement
Each&wave&is&to&describe&a&period&of&intense&activism&and&change.&Quite&
concentrated&at&these&points.&
-
2.
“First&Wave”&Feminism&(Late&19th&and&Early&20th&Century)3.
first&wave&feminism&as&largely&conservative&and&racist;&privileging&of&white,&
middle-class&motherhood
a.
First&wavers:&more&radical.&Wanted&to&secure&women's&basic&political&and&legal&
rights.&They&didn't&consider&gender&to&be&socially&constructed.&Seen&women&as&
"wife"&and&"mother"&
-
Many&were&quite&religious:&natural&morality/purity.&
-
Could&bring&values&into&the&public&sphere.&
-
Quite&racist:&only&acceptable&immigrants&=&British&immigrants.&
-
Wanted&basic&legal& rights&such&as&the&right&to&vote&so&that&"white"&women&would&
have&more&say.&
-
Because&of&their&gender&and&race&politics:&they&were&fairly&successful&at&gaining&
rights.&
-
“unity&doctrine”&b.
First&successes,&legally&speaking:&getting&rid&of&the&"unity&doctrine"
-
Inherited&from&England;&held&that&when&a&woman&and&man&got&married&they&
became&one&legal&person,&that&person&was&the&"man"&
-
A&married&woman,&thus&became&an&extension&of&her&husband&with&the&same&
legal&status&as&an&infant&or&institutionalized&individual.&
-
Completely&incapable&for&making&deicisons&for&themselves.&
-
Married&women&could&not&own&property:&land,&furniture,&money,&clothing
-
Left&women&very&vulnerable.&
-
Canadian&courts&upheld&fathers&to&legal&control&of&their&children.&
-
If&your&husband&divorces&you&or&abandons&you;&you&are&left&without&any&
means/legal&control&to&see&your&children.
-
Married&Women’s&Property&Acts,&starting&with&Ontario&(1884)c.
Married&Women's&Property&Acts&introduced:&way&in&which&the&unity&doctrine&
was&chipped&away&at.&
-
suffrage:&&federal&(1918),&provincial&(Manitoba,&Saskatchewan&and&Alberta&in&
1916,&B.C.&and&Ontario&in&1917,&Quebec&1940),&Aboriginal&women&and&men&
(federally&in&1960)
d.
The&write&to&vote.
-
A&lot&of&resistance;&very&controversial.&&Argument&was&made&that&women&were&
already&quite&privileged&in&society.&Were&given&a&special&sentimental&case.&
-
Men&were&supposed&to&be&the&heroic&
-
Titanic:&sunk&in&1912.&There&weren't&enough&lifeboats&for&everyone;&women&and&
children&were&put&on&the&boats&first.&Women&shouldn't&want&suffrage&because&
than&they&would&loose&their&"privileged"&place&in&society.&
-
Working&class&women&on&the&boat&had&100%&death&rate:&working&class&men&
were&needed&to&row&the&boat;&so&they&survived.&
-
If&women&were&given&certain&privileges:&it&was&only&to&a&small&group&of&upper&
middle&class&women.&
-
Most&provinces&gave&women&the&right&the&vote&in&the&early&1900's.&(&Many&
Aboriginal&women&got&the&right&to&vote&until&1960)
-
“Persons&Case”&(1929)e.
BNA&&(British&North&American)&Act&(1867):&Canada&coming&together.&It&said&that&
any&"qualified&person"&could&sit&in&senate.&
-
In&1928,&the&Supreme&Court&ruled&that&"persons"&did&not&include&women.&
-
Eventually&overturned&by&the&Prity&Council&in&the&UK.&Ruled&in&favor&of&Canadian&
women,&in&1929,&women&were&considered&persons.&
-
The&"Famous&Five"&
-
women&in&late&nineteenth/early&twentieth&century&not&completely&confined&to&
the&private&sphere;&forgotten&history&of&women&in&public&sphere
f.
working&class&women,&women&of&colour
Have&always&worked&outside&the&home:&white&wealthy&women&were&the&ones&to&
stay&at&home.&Women&of&colour/working&class&women&were&servants,&maids,&
factory&workers,&etc.&Only&the&privilege&of&the&middle&class&and&above.&
-
i.
white&middle&class&and&wealthy&women
Group&of&women&played&an&important&role&in&family&life.&
-
Voluntary&organizations,&political&parties&(ex.&liberal&and&conservative&parties&
had&ladies&exhilarates)&
-
ii.
“Second&Wave”&Feminism&(1960s-1980s)
issues&of&importancea.
Realized&basic&political& and&legal& rights&were&not&enough;&wanted&to&eliminate&
sexist&laws&and&reform&social&structure.&
-
Assumption&that&once&women&gained&the&same&access&and&opportunity&to&
compete:&the&state&would&not&treat&them&any&differently&than&that&of&men.&
-
Idea&up&until&the&second&wave:&discrimination&against&women&could&be&removed&
through&incremental&reform,&without&any&type&of&fundamental&changes&to&
society&or&restructuring&of&social&institutions.&
-
Issues&of&importance:&employment&equity&(the&right&to&be&hired&and&retained),&
pay&equity&(right&to&be&paid&the&same&as&men&for&the&same&work),&reproductive&
rights&(abortion,&the&right&to&birth&control,&to&not&be&sterilized&against&
will/knowledge)&and&maternity&leave.&
-
constitutional&crisis&b.
In&the&70's-many&people&in&Quebec&were&in&favor&of&sovergenity.&
-
Feminists&wished&for&the&constitutionals&to&consider&more&than&just&Quebec.&
-
Ad&Hoc&Committee&of&Women&on&the&Constitutionc.
sections&15&and&28&of&Canadian#Charter#of#Rights#and#Freedoms#(1982)d.
Said&nothing&about&sex&at&all:&had&to&get&sex&discrimination&in&this&Charter.&At&
this&conference,&there&should&be&not&Charter&of&Rights&and&Freedoms&without&
appropriate&guarantees&against&sex&discrimination.&
-
Because&of&this,&ended&up&with&section&15&and&28.&
-
View&that&the&Charter&should&be&guaranteed&equality&to&all&men&and&women.&
-
Other&conference&resolutions:&equal&protection,&etc.&
-
Activism&paid&off;&in&1982&Canadian&women&could&boast&that&women&were&
guaranteed&equality.&
-
Section&15&contains&a&specific&guarantee&for&sex.&
-
problems&with&“gender&neutrality”&in&Canadian&law&e.
Not&until&the&1980's&that&a&lot&of&laws&were&rewritten&to&be&gender&neutral.&
-
Were&rewritten&in&criminal&law&(sexual&assault,&partner&violence)&
-
Sexual&assault:&since&1984&has&been&a&gender&neutral&crime.&Until&1983&it&was&
legal&for&a&man&to&rape&a&woman:&it&was&his&"right"&to&rape&her&if&he&was&married&
to&her.&
-
Eliminated&the&idea&of&rape&as&a&"property&crime"&
-
Gender&neutrality&fails&to&capture&the&threat&that&rape&poses&to&women&(vast&
majority&of&people&raped&are&women&by&men)&
-
4.
“Third&Wave”&Feminism&(1990s-present)
Need&to&look&at&diverse&identities&of&women:&(sex,&class,&race,&sexuality,&
disability).
-
Third&wave&hasnt&been&particularly&successful&at&all.&
-
In&large&part,&because&they've&been&dealing&with&a&much&more&hostile&
atmosphere.&
-
5.
Problems&with&the&Three&Wave&Approach
primary&focus&is&white,&Anglo&womena.
6.
suggests&that&anti-racist&feminists&and&women&of&colour&had&no&feminist&activism&until&
the&1990s
i.
erases&Aboriginal&feminist&history&and&Québécois&feminist&history
yet&at&the&same&time,&insofar&as&feminism&has&been&successful&in&influencing&
Canadian&law,&it&is&been&a&(liberal)&feminism&that&largely&represents&the&interests&
of&white,&middle&class&women
b.
ii.
!"#$%&"'()'*+"',-."/01'2-3"."/$'4/5'67%489$:'
;9<+$1'9/'=4/454
Thursday,& October& 20,&2016
8:35&AM

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

If#the#abstract#rights#of#man#will#bear#discussion#and#explanation,#those#of#woman,#by#
a#parity#of#reasoning,#will#not#shrink#from#the#same#test.
Mary&Wollstonecraft&(1759-1797)
At#the#time#of#the#B.N.A. Act,#[women]#were,#under the common#law,#as#well#as#
underthe civil#law,#relieved#from#the#duties##from the duties of public#office#or#place,#
by#a#general#rule of law,#which#affected#them#[]#with#a personalincapacity#to##accept#
or#perform#such#duties;#and, in particular,#women#were#excluded#by the law#and#
practice of#parliamentary#institutions,#both in England#and in Canada,#and#indeed#in#
the#English#speaking#world,#from#holding#a#place#in#any#legislative#or#deliberative#body,#
and#from#voting#for the election of#a#member of any#such#body.
Supreme&Court&of&Canada&
(Reference#re#Meaning#of#the#Word#“Persons#in#s.#24#of#the#BNA#Act,&1928)&
Equality&Rights&and&the&Intellectual&Roots&of&the&(White,&Middle-Class)&Canadian&
Womans&Movement
Mary&Wollstonecraft,&A#Vindication#of#the#Rights#of#Woman#(1792)a.
In&part,&was&a&response&to&Thomas&Paine's&"The&Rights&of&Man"&(1791);&Pain's&
book&was&a&defense&of&the&French&Revolution;&Wollstonecraft&was&in&broad&
agreement&with&the&"liberty&for&eternity;"&Paine's&term&"man"&literally& means&
man.&
-
In&the&book&she&celebrates&rationality&and&points&out&an&analysis&of&the&social&
construction&of&masculinity
-
Jean-Jacques&Rousseau;&taught&to&please&her&husband
-
Wollstonecraft,&felt&that&the&circumstances&that&shaped&women's&lives&were&the&
laws&and&prejudices&that&excluded&them&from&the&"public&sphere"&
-
For&the&next&200&years,&women&struggled&for&their&rights
-
John&Stuart&Mill,&The#Subjection#of#Women#(1861)&b.
Fairly&likely&that&his&wife&co-wrote&this&book;&but&he&took&sole&credit.&
-
In&the&subjection&of&women,&made&a&sustained&arguments&for&the&rights&of&
women&(made&a&statement&for&legal&and&political&equality-also&changes&in&social&
attitudes)
-
Women's&access&to&education;&acknowledged&that&it&would&be&a&difficult&task&as&
people&were&working&against&him
-
limitations&of&(liberal)&“equal&rights”&perspectivec.
1.
The&analysis&was&somewhat&lacking.&Basic&legal/political&reform&advocated&by&
Wollstonecraft&and&Mill&have&been&achieved;&yet&position&of&women&remains&
problematic.&Politcal/legal&reforms=not&enough.&Central&question?&&Basic&legal&and&
poltical&equality&does&not&necessarily&lead&to&larger&social&and&economic&equality&or&
the&irradication&of&sexism,&racism,&homophobia,&etc.
i.
Classism;&they&were&concerned&largely&with&women&of&their&class.&The&second&
limitation&has&to&do&with&oblivion&to&the&working&class.&
ii.
Race&and&racism&not&a&matter&of&interest:&iii.
Did&not&consider&how&pregnancy,&childbirth&and&childcare&pose&obstacles&for&economic&
independence:&Early&feminists&didn't&look&at&these&obstacles.&
iv.
limitations&of&this&perspective&can&be&seen&in&the&Canadian&womens&movementd.
Gives&us&an&insight&into&how&early&Canadian&feminists&thought
-
The&“Three&Wave”&Approach&to&the&Canadian&Womens&Movement
Each&wave&is&to&describe&a&period&of&intense&activism&and&change.&Quite&
concentrated&at&these&points.&
-
2.
“First&Wave”&Feminism&(Late&19th&and&Early&20th&Century)3.
first&wave&feminism&as&largely&conservative&and&racist;&privileging&of&white,&
middle-class&motherhood
a.
First&wavers:&more&radical.&Wanted&to&secure&women's&basic&political&and&legal&
rights.&They&didn't&consider&gender&to&be&socially&constructed.&Seen&women&as&
"wife"&and&"mother"&
-
Many&were&quite&religious:&natural&morality/purity.&
-
Could&bring&values&into&the&public&sphere.&
-
Quite&racist:&only&acceptable&immigrants&=&British&immigrants.&
-
Wanted&basic&legal& rights&such&as&the&right&to&vote&so&that&"white"&women&would&
have&more&say.&
-
Because&of&their&gender&and&race&politics:&they&were&fairly&successful&at&gaining&
rights.&
-
“unity&doctrine”&b.
First&successes,&legally&speaking:&getting&rid&of&the&"unity&doctrine"
-
Inherited&from&England;&held&that&when&a&woman&and&man&got&married&they&
became&one&legal&person,&that&person&was&the&"man"&
-
A&married&woman,&thus&became&an&extension&of&her&husband&with&the&same&
legal&status&as&an&infant&or&institutionalized&individual.&
-
Completely&incapable&for&making&deicisons&for&themselves.&
-
Married&women&could&not&own&property:&land,&furniture,&money,&clothing
-
Left&women&very&vulnerable.&
-
Canadian&courts&upheld&fathers&to&legal&control&of&their&children.&
-
If&your&husband&divorces&you&or&abandons&you;&you&are&left&without&any&
means/legal&control&to&see&your&children.
-
Married&Women’s&Property&Acts,&starting&with&Ontario&(1884)c.
Married&Women's&Property&Acts&introduced:&way&in&which&the&unity&doctrine&
was&chipped&away&at.&
-
suffrage:&&federal&(1918),&provincial&(Manitoba,&Saskatchewan&and&Alberta&in&
1916,&B.C.&and&Ontario&in&1917,&Quebec&1940),&Aboriginal&women&and&men&
(federally&in&1960)
d.
The&write&to&vote.
-
A&lot&of&resistance;&very&controversial.&&Argument&was&made&that&women&were&
already&quite&privileged&in&society.&Were&given&a&special&sentimental&case.&
-
Men&were&supposed&to&be&the&heroic&
-
Titanic:&sunk&in&1912.&There&weren't&enough&lifeboats&for&everyone;&women&and&
children&were&put&on&the&boats&first.&Women&shouldn't&want&suffrage&because&
than&they&would&loose&their&"privileged"&place&in&society.&
-
Working&class&women&on&the&boat&had&100%&death&rate:&working&class&men&
were&needed&to&row&the&boat;&so&they&survived.&
-
If&women&were&given&certain&privileges:&it&was&only&to&a&small&group&of&upper&
middle&class&women.&
-
Most&provinces&gave&women&the&right&the&vote&in&the&early&1900's.&(&Many&
Aboriginal&women&got&the&right&to&vote&until&1960)
-
“Persons&Case”&(1929)e.
BNA&&(British&North&American)&Act&(1867):&Canada&coming&together.&It&said&that&
any&"qualified&person"&could&sit&in&senate.&
-
In&1928,&the&Supreme&Court&ruled&that&"persons"&did&not&include&women.&
-
Eventually&overturned&by&the&Prity&Council&in&the&UK.&Ruled&in&favor&of&Canadian&
women,&in&1929,&women&were&considered&persons.&
-
The&"Famous&Five"&
-
women&in&late&nineteenth/early&twentieth&century&not&completely&confined&to&
the&private&sphere;&forgotten&history&of&women&in&public&sphere
f.
working&class&women,&women&of&colour
Have&always&worked&outside&the&home:&white&wealthy&women&were&the&ones&to&
stay&at&home.&Women&of&colour/working&class&women&were&servants,&maids,&
factory&workers,&etc.&Only&the&privilege&of&the&middle&class&and&above.&
-
i.
white&middle&class&and&wealthy&women
Group&of&women&played&an&important&role&in&family&life.&
-
Voluntary&organizations,&political&parties&(ex.&liberal&and&conservative&parties&
had&ladies&exhilarates)&
-
ii.
“Second&Wave”&Feminism&(1960s-1980s)
issues&of&importancea.
Realized&basic&political& and&legal& rights&were&not&enough;&wanted&to&eliminate&
sexist&laws&and&reform&social&structure.&
-
Assumption&that&once&women&gained&the&same&access&and&opportunity&to&
compete:&the&state&would&not&treat&them&any&differently&than&that&of&men.&
-
Idea&up&until&the&second&wave:&discrimination&against&women&could&be&removed&
through&incremental&reform,&without&any&type&of&fundamental&changes&to&
society&or&restructuring&of&social&institutions.&
-
Issues&of&importance:&employment&equity&(the&right&to&be&hired&and&retained),&
pay&equity&(right&to&be&paid&the&same&as&men&for&the&same&work),&reproductive&
rights&(abortion,&the&right&to&birth&control,&to&not&be&sterilized&against&
will/knowledge)&and&maternity&leave.&
-
constitutional&crisis&b.
In&the&70's-many&people&in&Quebec&were&in&favor&of&sovergenity.&
-
Feminists&wished&for&the&constitutionals&to&consider&more&than&just&Quebec.&
-
Ad&Hoc&Committee&of&Women&on&the&Constitutionc.
sections&15&and&28&of&Canadian#Charter#of#Rights#and#Freedoms#(1982)d.
Said&nothing&about&sex&at&all:&had&to&get&sex&discrimination&in&this&Charter.&At&
this&conference,&there&should&be&not&Charter&of&Rights&and&Freedoms&without&
appropriate&guarantees&against&sex&discrimination.&
-
Because&of&this,&ended&up&with&section&15&and&28.&
-
View&that&the&Charter&should&be&guaranteed&equality&to&all&men&and&women.&
-
Other&conference&resolutions:&equal&protection,&etc.&
-
Activism&paid&off;&in&1982&Canadian&women&could&boast&that&women&were&
guaranteed&equality.&
-
Section&15&contains&a&specific&guarantee&for&sex.&
-
problems&with&“gender&neutrality”&in&Canadian&law&e.
Not&until&the&1980's&that&a&lot&of&laws&were&rewritten&to&be&gender&neutral.&
-
Were&rewritten&in&criminal&law&(sexual&assault,&partner&violence)&
-
Sexual&assault:&since&1984&has&been&a&gender&neutral&crime.&Until&1983&it&was&
legal&for&a&man&to&rape&a&woman:&it&was&his&"right"&to&rape&her&if&he&was&married&
to&her.&
-
Eliminated&the&idea&of&rape&as&a&"property&crime"&
-
Gender&neutrality&fails&to&capture&the&threat&that&rape&poses&to&women&(vast&
majority&of&people&raped&are&women&by&men)&
-
4.
“Third&Wave”&Feminism&(1990s-present)
Need&to&look&at&diverse&identities&of&women:&(sex,&class,&race,&sexuality,&
disability).
-
Third&wave&hasnt&been&particularly&successful&at&all.&
-
In&large&part,&because&they've&been&dealing&with&a&much&more&hostile&
atmosphere.&
-
5.
Problems&with&the&Three&Wave&Approach
primary&focus&is&white,&Anglo&womena.
6.
suggests&that&anti-racist&feminists&and&women&of&colour&had&no&feminist&activism&until&
the&1990s
i.
erases&Aboriginal&feminist&history&and&Québécois&feminist&history
yet&at&the&same&time,&insofar&as&feminism&has&been&successful&in&influencing&
Canadian&law,&it&is&been&a&(liberal)&feminism&that&largely&represents&the&interests&
of&white,&middle&class&women
b.
ii.
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Thursday,& October& 20,&2016 8:35&AM
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