PHYS 1111L Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Net Force

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27 Nov 2017
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an
object.A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin
moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. Force can also be described intuitively as a
push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is
measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.
The original form of Newton's second law states that the net force acting upon an object is
equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. If the mass of the object is
constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the
net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely
proportional to the mass of the object
Concepts related to force include: thrust, which increases the velocity of an object; drag,
which decreases the velocity of an object; and torque, which produces changes in rotational
speed of an object. In an extended body, each part usually applies forces on the adjacent
parts; the distribution of such forces through the body is the internal mechanical stress.
Such internal mechanical stresses cause no accelation of that body as the forces balance
one another. Pressure, the distribution of many small forces applied over an area of a body,
is a simple type of stress that if unbalanced can cause the body to accelerate. Stress
usually causes deformation of solid materials, or flow in fluids.
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