BIO-1801 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Surface Tension, Molar Concentration, Boiling Point

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Solutions
Concentration
oAmount of a solute dissolved in a unit volume of solution
o1 gram of NaCl was dissolved in 1 liter of water = 1 g/L
Molarity
oNumber of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 L of water
o1 mole of a substance is the amount of the substance in grams equal to its atomic or
molecular mass
oOne mole or 6.022x1023 molecules = Avagadro’s number
H20 in 3 states of matter
Solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (water vapor)
Changes in state, such as changes between the solid, liquid, and gas states of H20 involve an
input or release of energy
oHeat of vaporization- water has a high one (conversion from liquid to gas)
oHeat of fusion- water has a high one (Conversion of water from liquid to solid)
Water is extremely stable as a liquid
Colligative properties of water
Temp at which a solution freezes is influenced by amounts of dissolved solutes
Addition of solutes to water lowers its freezing point below 0 and raises its boiling point above
100 C
Some animals produce antifreeze molecules that dissolve in their body fluids, thereby lowering
the freezing point of the fluids and preventing their blood and cells from freezing in extreme
cold
Water, not just a solvent
Water has many important functions in living organisms
oParticipates in chemical reactions
Hydrolysis or dehydration (condensation)
oProvides force or support
oRemoves toxic waste components
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Document Summary

Concentration: amount of a solute dissolved in a unit volume of solution, 1 gram of nacl was dissolved in 1 liter of water = 1 g/l. Solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (water vapor) Water is extremely stable as a liquid. Temp at which a solution freezes is influenced by amounts of dissolved solutes. Addition of solutes to water lowers its freezing point below 0 and raises its boiling point above. Some animals produce antifreeze molecules that dissolve in their body fluids, thereby lowering the freezing point of the fluids and preventing their blood and cells from freezing in extreme cold. Water has many important functions in living organisms: participates in chemical reactions. Hydrolysis or dehydration (condensation: provides force or support, removes toxic waste components. When you sweat your body is releasing heat energy, that is why when you feel a breeze you will get goosebumps, as it evaporates it is cooling you off: cohesion and adhesion.

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