AST 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Ammonium Hydrosulfide

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Published on 12 Nov 2015
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AST 111: Lect 16- Jupiter and Saturn
-Jupiter is the prototype of the Jovian planets
-you can fit approx.. 1,000 Earths inside of Jupiter
Jupiter is so massive that if you combined everything in our solar system, that
combined mass would not have as much mass
-Jupiter and Saturn are the gems of the solar system
Great for viewing with relatively low powered telescopes
Saturn has great rings
-Saturn is only 95 times bigger than the Earth (mass wise)
-When can you best see them?
Since they are superior planets, the best time to see them is at opposition
(opposite the sun)
When does this happen?
oJupiter: about every 13 months
oSaturn: about every year (+1/2 weeks)
-Differential Rotation
The terrestrial planets all spin at the same time, but the Jovian planets have a
more fluid motion
oWith fluid motion, the outsides tend to spin slower towards the poles
-Rotation
At the equator, Jupiter rotates in about 9 hours and 50 minutes (the fastest
rotating planet in the solar system)
Jupiter has a very slight tilt (3 degrees) while Saturn has a more Earth-like tilt (27
degrees)
-Each planet is mostly gaseous!
Density
oJupiter : 1326 kg/m2
oSaturn: 687 kg/m2
Saturn is less dense than water!!!
-The clouds of these planets are probably in 3 layers
- The highest layer is mostly ammonia clouds
- The middle layer is made of ammonium hydrosulfide
- And the lowest layer is probably water clouds
-The oblateness of Jupiter and Saturn tells that they have a rocky core
- Since they are not completely oblate, there is reason to believe that both planets
have a small rocky/icy core
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