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Types of Bonding

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Arizona State University
CHM 113
Ron Briggs

Types of Bonding - Metallic Bonding: Atoms share VE’s in a delocalized (spread out) sea, which attracts all the positive nuclei. o Explains why metals are ductile, malleable, conductive o Example: Pure metal solids (Cu, Fe, Pb, etc.) and alloys (Brass, steel, bronze, etc.) - Covalent Bonding: Sharing of one or more VE pairs. o Occurs between atoms with a zero or small different in EN o Example: Cl 2  Each Cl has 7 VE’s  Shares one pair of VE’s making each Cl have 8 VE’s and full shell (stable)  Example of Single Covalent Bonding Lewis Dot Structure - Lewis Structure: VE’s represented as dots around element’s symbol - Octet Rule: Elements will share VE’s (bond) in order to fill their Valence shells with 8 electrons o Noble Gases don’t like to share VE’s because valence shells are already full o Exceptions to the Octet Rule:  Free Radicals: Compounds with odd number of electrons  NO (11 VE)  ClO 2  NO 2 -  O 2  Compounds that have less than 8 electrons on one or more of the atoms  H only wants 2 VE to fill shell (like He)  Elements of 3 group of periodic table (B, Al, etc) – typically want 6 electrons  Expanded Octets: Atoms that have more than an octet around them rd  Central atom must be in the 3 row of periodic table or beyond o Relatively large, can accommodate  Peripheral atoms are small, highly electronegative atoms  Examples: o PCl 5 - o AsF 6 o SF 4 - o I
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