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24 - Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800 - 1870.doc

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HST 101
Tom Wang

Chapter 23 Notes I0. Changes and Exchanges in Africa A0. New Africa States 10. Serious drought hit the coastlands of southeastern Africa in the early nineteenth century and led to conflicts over grazing and farming lands. During these conflicts Shaka used strict military drill and close-combat warfare in order to build the Zulu kingdom. 20. Some neighboring Africans created their own states (such as Swaziland and Lesotho) in order to protect themselves against the expansionist Zulu kingdom. Shaka ruled the Zulu kingdom for little more than a decade, but he succeeded in creating a new national identity as well as a new kingdom. 30. In West Africa movements to purify Islam led to the construction of new states through the classic Muslim pattern of jihad. The largest of these reform movements occurred in the Hausa states and led to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate (1809– 1906). 40. The new Muslim states became centers of Islamic learning and reform. Sokoto and other Muslim states both sold slaves and used slaves in order to raise food, thus making it possible for them to seclude free Muslim women in their homes in accordance with reformed Muslim practice. B0. Modernization in Egypt and Ethiopia 10. In Egypt, Muhammad Ali (r. 1805–1848) carried out a series of modernizing reforms that were intended to build up Egypt’s military strength. In order to pay for his reform program, Muhammad Ali required Egyptian peasants to cultivate cotton and other crops for export. 20. Muhammad Ali’s grandson Ismail placed even more emphasis on westernizing Egypt. Ismail’s ambitious construction programs (railroads, the new capital city of Cairo) were funded by borrowing from French and British banks, which led Britain and France to occupy the country when the market for cotton collapsed after the American Civil War. 30. In the mid- to late nineteenth century Ethiopian kings reconquered territory that had been lost since the sixteenth century, purchased modern European weapons, and began to manufacture weapons locally. An attempt to hold British officials captive led to a temporary British occupation in the 1860s, but the British withdrew and the modernization program continued. C0. European Pentration 10. In 1830 France invaded Algeria; it took the French eighteen years to defeat Algerian resistance organized by the Muslim holy man Abd al-Qadir and another thirty years to put down resistance forces in the mountains. By 1871 130,000 European settlers had taken possession of rich Algerian farmland. 20. European explorers carried out peaceful expeditions in order to trace the course of Africa’s rivers, assess the mineral wealth of the continent, and to convert Africans to Christianity. David Livingstone, Henry Morton Stanley, and other explorers traced the courses of the Nile, the Niger, the Zambezi, and the Congo rivers. D0. Abolition and Legitimate Trade 10. In 1808 news of slave revolts like that on Saint Domingue and the activities of abolitionists combined to lead Britain and the United States to prohibit their citizens from participating in the slave trade. The British used their navy in order to stop the slave trade, but the continued demand for slaves in Cuba and Brazil meant that the trade did not end until 1867. 20. As the slave trade declined, Africans expanded their “legitimate trade” in gold and other goods. 30. The most successful new export was palm oil that was exported to British manufacturers of soap, candles, and lubricants. The increased export of palm oil altered the social structure of coastal trading communities of the Niger Delta, as is demonstrated in the career of the canoe slave Jaja who became a wealthy palm oil trader in the 1870s. 40. The suppression of the salve trade also helped to spread Western cultural influences in West Africa. Missionaries converted and founded schools for the recaptives whom the British settled in Sierra Leone while black Americans brought Western culture to Liberia and to other parts of Africa before and after Emancipation in the United States. E0. Secondary Empires in Eastern Africa 10. When British patrols ended the slave trade on the Atlantic coast, slave traders in the Atlantic trade began to purchase their slaves from the East African markets that had traditionally supplied slaves to North Africa and the Middle East. Zanzibar Island and neighboring territories ruled by the Sultan of Oman were important in the slave trade, the ivory trade, and in the cultivation of cloves on plantations using slave labor. 20. The demand for ivory along the East African coast allowed African and Arab merchants hundreds of miles inland to build large personal trading empires like that of Tippu Tip. Historians refer to these empires as “secondary empires” because they depended on Western demand for ivory and other goods and on Western manufacturers for weapons. 30. Egypt’s expansion southward in the nineteenth century may also be considered a secondary empire. Muhammad Ali invaded the Egyptian Sudan in order to secure slaves for his armies. II0. India Under British Rule A0. Company Men 10. In the eighteenth century the Mughal Empire was defeated and its capital sacked by marauding Iranian armies while internally, the Mughal’s deputies (nawabs) had become de facto independent rulers of their states. 20. British, French, and Dutch companies staffed by ambitious young “Company Men” established trading posts and strategic places and hired Indian troops (sepoys) to defend them. By the early 1800s the British East India Company had pushed the French out of south India, forced the Mughal Empire to recognize Company rule over Bengal, and taken control of large territories that became the core of the “Bombay Presidency.” B0. Raj and Rebellion, 1818–1857 10. The British raj (reign) over India aimed both to introduce administrative and social reform and to hold the support of Indian allies by respecting Indian social and religious customs. These contradictory goals led to many inconsistencies in British policies toward India. 20. Before 1850 the British created a government that relied on sepoy military power, disarmed the warriors of the Indian states, gave free reign to Christian missionaries, and established a private land ownership system in order to ease tax collection. At the same time, the British bolstered the “traditional” power of princes and holy men and invented “t
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