Chapter 23 Notes
I0. Changes and Exchanges in Africa
A0. New Africa States
10. Serious drought hit the coastlands of southeastern Africa in the
early nineteenth century and led to conflicts over grazing and
farming lands. During these conflicts Shaka used strict military
drill and close-combat warfare in order to build the Zulu
20. Some neighboring Africans created their own states (such as
Swaziland and Lesotho) in order to protect themselves against
the expansionist Zulu kingdom. Shaka ruled the Zulu kingdom
for little more than a decade, but he succeeded in creating a
new national identity as well as a new kingdom.
30. In West Africa movements to purify Islam led to the construction
of new states through the classic Muslim pattern of jihad. The
largest of these reform movements occurred in the Hausa states
and led to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate (1809–
40. The new Muslim states became centers of Islamic learning and
reform. Sokoto and other Muslim states both sold slaves and
used slaves in order to raise food, thus making it possible for
them to seclude free Muslim women in their homes in
accordance with reformed Muslim practice.
B0. Modernization in Egypt and Ethiopia
10. In Egypt, Muhammad Ali (r. 1805–1848) carried out a series of
modernizing reforms that were intended to build up Egypt’s
military strength. In order to pay for his reform program,
Muhammad Ali required Egyptian peasants to cultivate cotton
and other crops for export.
20. Muhammad Ali’s grandson Ismail placed even more emphasis
on westernizing Egypt. Ismail’s ambitious construction programs
(railroads, the new capital city of Cairo) were funded by
borrowing from French and British banks, which led Britain and
France to occupy the country when the market for cotton
collapsed after the American Civil War.
30. In the mid- to late nineteenth century Ethiopian kings
reconquered territory that had been lost since the sixteenth
century, purchased modern European weapons, and began to
manufacture weapons locally. An attempt to hold British officials
captive led to a temporary British occupation in the 1860s, but
the British withdrew and the modernization program continued.
C0. European Pentration
10. In 1830 France invaded Algeria; it took the French eighteen
years to defeat Algerian resistance organized by the Muslim
holy man Abd al-Qadir and another thirty years to put down
resistance forces in the mountains. By 1871 130,000 European
settlers had taken possession of rich Algerian farmland. 20. European explorers carried out peaceful expeditions in order to
trace the course of Africa’s rivers, assess the mineral wealth of
the continent, and to convert Africans to Christianity. David
Livingstone, Henry Morton Stanley, and other explorers traced
the courses of the Nile, the Niger, the Zambezi, and the Congo
D0. Abolition and Legitimate Trade
10. In 1808 news of slave revolts like that on Saint Domingue and
the activities of abolitionists combined to lead Britain and the
United States to prohibit their citizens from participating in the
slave trade. The British used their navy in order to stop the
slave trade, but the continued demand for slaves in Cuba and
Brazil meant that the trade did not end until 1867.
20. As the slave trade declined, Africans expanded their “legitimate
trade” in gold and other goods.
30. The most successful new export was palm oil that was exported
to British manufacturers of soap, candles, and lubricants. The
increased export of palm oil altered the social structure of
coastal trading communities of the Niger Delta, as is
demonstrated in the career of the canoe slave Jaja who became
a wealthy palm oil trader in the 1870s.
40. The suppression of the salve trade also helped to spread
Western cultural influences in West Africa. Missionaries
converted and founded schools for the recaptives whom the
British settled in Sierra Leone while black Americans brought
Western culture to Liberia and to other parts of Africa before
and after Emancipation in the United States.
E0. Secondary Empires in Eastern Africa
10. When British patrols ended the slave trade on the Atlantic coast,
slave traders in the Atlantic trade began to purchase their
slaves from the East African markets that had traditionally
supplied slaves to North Africa and the Middle East. Zanzibar
Island and neighboring territories ruled by the Sultan of Oman
were important in the slave trade, the ivory trade, and in the
cultivation of cloves on plantations using slave labor.
20. The demand for ivory along the East African coast allowed
African and Arab merchants hundreds of miles inland to build
large personal trading empires like that of Tippu Tip. Historians
refer to these empires as “secondary empires” because they
depended on Western demand for ivory and other goods and on
Western manufacturers for weapons.
30. Egypt’s expansion southward in the nineteenth century may
also be considered a secondary empire. Muhammad Ali invaded
the Egyptian Sudan in order to secure slaves for his armies.
II0. India Under British Rule
A0. Company Men
10. In the eighteenth century the Mughal Empire was defeated and
its capital sacked by marauding Iranian armies while internally,
the Mughal’s deputies (nawabs) had become de facto
independent rulers of their states. 20. British, French, and Dutch companies staffed by ambitious
young “Company Men” established trading posts and strategic
places and hired Indian troops (sepoys) to defend them. By the
early 1800s the British East India Company had pushed the
French out of south India, forced the Mughal Empire to
recognize Company rule over Bengal, and taken control of large
territories that became the core of the “Bombay Presidency.”
B0. Raj and Rebellion, 1818–1857
10. The British raj (reign) over India aimed both to introduce
administrative and social reform and to hold the support of
Indian allies by respecting Indian social and religious customs.
These contradictory goals led to many inconsistencies in British
policies toward India.
20. Before 1850 the British created a government that relied on
sepoy military power, disarmed the warriors of the Indian states,
gave free reign to Christian missionaries, and established a
private land ownership system in order to ease tax collection. At
the same time, the British bolstered the “traditional” power of
princes and holy men and invented “t