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BIOL 1020 4

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BIOL 1020
Anne- Marie Singh

BIOL 1020 – CHAPTER 4 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 4: Carbon and the molecular diversity of life I. Much of the chemistry of life is based on organic compounds A. organic compounds have at least one carbon atom covalently bound to another carbon atom or to hydrogen; the chemistry of organic molecules is organized around the carbon atom B. carbon atoms have six electrons-2inlevel1,and4intheirvalence(outer)shell(level2) 1. Carbon is not a strongly electron seeking element, and it does not readily give up its electrons. Thus carbon does not readily from ionic bonds. It almost always shares electrons, forming covalent bonds. 2. carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds (and typically does form all four) C. wide diversity inorganic compounds 1. over 5 million identified 2. variety partially because carbon tends to bond to carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus• hydrocarbons – contain only hydrogen and carbon• single carbon-carbon bonds allow rotation around them and lend flexibility in molecules 3. building of organic macromolecules also leads to diversity • carbon works well as a molecular “backbone” for forming long chain molecules due to the number and strength of its bonds, particularly carbon-carbon bonds • stronger carbon-carbon bonds can be made with double and triple covalent bonds • carbon chains can branchshape of a molecule is important in determining its chemical and biological properties D. the 1. the 4 bonds formed by carbon are formed at 109.5 degree angles from each other and form a pyramid with a triangular base called a tetrahedron 2. when double bonds are formed the bonds are formed at angles 120 degrees apart, and they all lie in the same plane 3. These bond angles for carbon play a critical role in determining the shape of molecules. 4. generally there is freedom to rotate around carbon to carbon single bonds, but rotation around double bonds is not permitted II. Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures; there are two kinds of isomers A. structural isomers - substances with the same molecular formula that differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms; example: ethanol and dimethyl ether (C2H6O) B. stereoisomers-substances with the same arrangement of covalent bonds, but the order in which the atoms are arrang
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