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Lecture 17

ECON BC 2075y Lecture 17: Lecture 17 Notes


Department
Economics
Course Code
ECON BC 2075y
Professor
Belinda Archibong
Lecture
17

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Equality as an objective: The Egalitarian Return Part II
Session 17 Topics
Introducing egalitarianism, class and inequality
—Equality as an objective, equality of what
—Luck egalitarianism vs democratic equality
—On voting, political equality and social responsibility
—Mary Wollstonecraft on gender equality
—Policy choices of women and role of the state (affirmative action revisited)
On Political Equality: Should Voting be Mandatory?
Countries with Compulsory Voting Laws:
Compulsory at 18 years, optional at 16-18 years (ex. Brazil)
Compulsory at 18 years (ex. Mexico, Costa Rica, Peru)
Compulsory at 20 years (ex. Nauru)
Compulsory at 21 years (ex. Thailand)
Compulsory at 21 years for men only (ex. Lebanon)
Introducing Egalitarianism
An egalitarian is any person who attaches some value to equality itself (that is,
any person that cares at all about equality, over and above the extent to which it
promotes other ideals).
So equality needn’t be the only value, or even the ideal she values most.
Equality of What?
Welfare
Resources
Opportunities
Advantages
Political power
And much more…
Why Care about Equality?
Intrinsic defense of equality
Instrumental defense of equality
Instrumental Defense of Equality
Instrumentalist view of equality
Notes the importance of:
Social relations
Economic relations
Political relations
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Legal relations
Interpersonal relations
Situation may be different if there is inequality in:
Income
Wealth
Education
Political power
Legal protection
Two camps of egalitarianism and Anderson’s Democratic Equality
Hybrid positions
Luck
Income
Strict
Education
Political power
Luck Egalitarianism vs Strict Egalitarianism
Justice, institutions, and Luck: The site, ground, and scope of equality by Kok-
Chor Tan
What is luck egalitarianism?
a position, or a family of positions, associated principally with. the writings
of, among others, Ronald Dworkin, G. A. Cohen, Richard Arneson, and.
John Roemer. It has proved to be a very influential doctrine in recent
political. Philosophy.
Luck egalitarianism (equality of fortune)
For luck egalitarians, the idea of the moral equality of persons requires that each
person take responsibility for her choices and assume the costs of these choices.
Conversely, it holds that no one should be worse off just because of bad luck
Choice vs luck
Option luck vs bad luck - Anderson
Anderson: response of Luck Egalitarians to Libertarians
Equality is futile? : define equality’s domain
Leveling down: only according to maximin, all other inequality permitted
Takes good away from deserving: only from fortunate part of advantages
everyone acknowledges
Undermines personal responsibility: starting gate conception, ensuring equality
of opportunity, rest is choice
Luck egalitarians: mixing capitalism ( choice) and the welfare state (luck)
Anderson: criticisms of Luck egalitarianism
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