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Lecture 4

BIOL 4270 Lecture 4: Reproductive System

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BIOL 4270

Reproductive System Male Reproductive Organs 1. Testes and cremaster muscle a. Muscle that covers the testes and spermatic cord; moves the testis promoting healthy and motile sperm 2. Dartos muscle a. Lies beneath the skin of the labia majora; work to regulate the temperature of the male testes 3. Seminiferous Tubules a. Located within the testes; specific location of meiosis and creation of spermatozoa; epithelium consists of Sertoli cells 4. Leydig or interstitial cells a. Found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicles; produce testosterone in the presence of LH 5. Myoid cells a. Peritubular myoid cells, surrounding the seminiferous tubules in the testes; surround sertoli cells circumscribing the testis cords 6. Sertoli cells a. Function at the end of spermatogenesis; “nurse cell” of the testicles; provide nourishment for developing spermatozoa sperms; also secrete ABP that concentrate testosterone in seminiferous tubules 7. Rete tesis a. Anastosoming network of delicate tubules located in the hilum of the testicles that carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the efferent ducts 8. Spermatic cord a. The cord-like structure in males formed by vas deferens b. Conveys sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts c. AKA ductus deferens 9. Scortum a. Cremater muscle and dartos muscle b. Pouch of skin containing the testicles; regulates temperature of the testes 10.Penis a. External male intromittent organ that additional serves as urinal duct; primary sexual organ of the male b. Composed of 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile cavernous tissue i. Paired corpora cavernosa ii. Corpus Spongiusum 11.Epididymis a. Tube located at the back of the testicles that stores and carries sperm b. 3 parts= head, body and tail i. Head- located on the superior pole of testis; stores sperm for maturation ii. Body= slightly convoluted duct that connects the head to the tail 12.Urethra a. Tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for removal of fluids from the body b. Segments= Prostatic, membranous and spongy 13.Function of testosterone a. Primary male sex hormone and anabolic steroid; plays key role in the development of male reproductive tissues, such as the testis and prostate Female reproductive Glands 1. Ovaries a. Female reproductive organ in which ova/ eggs are produced b. Ovum- producing reproductive organ c. Ovarian follicle= fluid filled sac the contains the immature egg/ oocyte d. Graafian follicle= fluid filled structure in the mammalian ovary within which an ovum develops before ovulation e. Corpus Luteum- temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early stages of pregnancy; develops from an ovarian follicle during luteal phase 2. Fallopian tubes a. Tube along which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus b. Ampulla and fimbria— i. Ampulla= the 2 segment of the fallopian tube; intermediate dilated portion, which curves over the ovary; thin walled, major portion of lateral tube; typically where fertilization occurs; merge with fimbriae ii. Fimbria= series of threads; finger-like projections at the end of fallopian tubes; activated by hormones to catch a released egg c. Uterus i. Nurtures the fertilized ovum ii. Aka the womb iii. Hollow muscular organ that is responsible for the development of the embryo during pregnancy iv. Ligaments 1. Broad ligament- double layered peritoneum attaching the side of the uterus to the pelvis; acts as a mesentery of the uterus and contributes to maintaining its position 2. Round ligament- remnant of gubernaculums extending from the uterine horns to the labia majora via the inguinal canal; functions to maintain the anteverted position of the uterus 3. Ovarian ligament- joins the ovaries to
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