Paul Branzberg v. Hayes (1972)
• Article appears in Louisville in the newspaper talking about drug trade. Reporter is called
to a grand jury to report about what he knew in the drug trade that the police could use to
help catch criminals.
• Held in contempt of court indefinitely when he refuses to report to the jury using the 1 st
Amendment and the “reporters privilege”: because they play such a crucial role in
creating democratic society their stories should be protected.
• Supreme Court says they are not protected, just a citizen and it your duty to report to the
Richmond Newspaper v. Virginia (1980)
• Judge barred the press and their ability to report on what was going on. The paper
brought suit because trails are supposed to be public, that’s a 1 Amendment guarantee
• 7-1, yes it is guaranteed and the judge cannot do that.
Brandenberg v. ohio (1969)
• Speech case, right to free speech as guaranteed by the 1 Amendment.
• Brandenburg is a crazy lunatic. He is arrested. Precedent: Whitney: difference between
advocating for it and it being a real threat.
• Takes speech a step further towards free. Unless it is speech that will lead to imminent
lawless action it cannot be restricted. • The conclusion of Holmes’s dissent inAbrams. From then on there is an increase in free