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Lecture 34

# EPS 7 Lecture Notes - Lecture 34: Wind Turbine, Net Metering, Capacity Factor

2 Pages
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Fall 2017

Department
Earth And Planetary Science
Course Code
EPS 7
Professor
David Romps
Lecture
34

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Lecture 34
Domestic policy: CPP, ITC, PTC, alphabet soup
Promoting switch to renewables
1) ITC
- The investment tax credit pays for 30% of the cost of installing solar PV on
- My house uses 350 W of electricity, 400 W isnâ€™t enough (it is rated power)
- Rated power is the out put under idea conditions, e.g., facing 1000 W/m2 of
incoming sunlight
- The capacity factor is the ratio of actual power output to rated power output
- Actual power = capacity factor x rated power
- For solar in California, the capacity factor is roughly 0.15
- Since I need 350 W, the equation above becomes: 350 W = 0.15 x rated power
- Rated power = (350 W)/ 0.15 = 2300 W, the panel is about 250 W, so I need
(2300 W) / (250 W/ panel) = 9 panels
2) PTC
- The production tax credit (PTC) provides 2 cents/kWh of electricity
generated by a wind turbine in the 10 years since its installation
- What the heck is kWh? It is a stupid unit, there are lots of stupid unit
- One smart unit: Joule
- 2 cents / kWh = 20 dollars / MWh = 20 dollars / (1 million W x 3600 s)
- = 20 dollars / (3.6 billion W x s) = 20 dollars / (3.6 billion J) = 20 dollars /
(3.6 GJ) = 20 dollars / (4GJ) = 5 dollars / GJ (is this a lot of a little?)
- The PTC pays 5\$ /GJ for the first 10 years
- How many GJ do wind turbines generate in 10 years?
- Let us imagine that we install 1 W of wind turbines
- The cost of utility scale wind is 1\$/ W, so that 1W of rated power costs us 1\$
- For wind, the capacity factor = 0.3
- So, 1 W of rated power produces roughly 0.3 W of electricity
- How much energy does this 0.3 W amount to be in 10 years
- 0.3 watt x 10 years = 0.3 watt x 10 years x (30,000,000 s/ year)
- = 0.3 watt x 300,000,000 s = 90 MJ = 100 MJ = 0.1 GJ
- We pay 1\$ to install 1 W of rated power wind turbine, and that generates 0.1
- The PTC pays: 0.1 GJ x (5\$/GJ) = 0.5 \$
- The PTC effectively pays for roughly 50% of the installation
3) RPS
- Renewables portfolio standard: a requirement on retail electric suppliers
- To supply a minimum percentage or amount of their retail load with eligible
sources of renewable energy
4) Net metering
- Net metering is a policy, which caries from state to state, that allows
residential customers to pay only for the net amount of electricity they use
- I need 2.3 kW of rated power. How much would it cost to go solar, taking
advantage of the ITC and net metering?
- Cost of installing residential solar is roughly 3\$/ W
- (2.3 kW) x ( 3\$/ W) x (1-0.3) ITC
- = 6.9 k\$ x 0.7
- = 7000\$ x 0.7 = 5000 \$

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Description
Lecture 34 Domestic policy: CPP, ITC, PTC, alphabet soup Promoting switch to renewables 1) ITC The investment tax credit pays for 30 of the cost of installing solar PV on your roof My house uses 350 W of electricity, 400 W isnt enough (it is rated power) Rated power is the out put under idea conditions, e.g., facing 1000 Wm2 of incoming sunlight The capacity factor is the ratio of actual power output to rated power output Actual power = capacity factor x rated power For solar in California, the capacity factor is roughly 0.15 Since I need 350 W, the equation above becomes: 350 W = 0.15 x rated power Rated power = (350 W) 0.15 = 2300 W, the panel is about 250 W, so I need (2300 W) (250 W panel) = 9 panels What about nighttime? 2) PTC The production tax credit (PTC) provides 2 centskWh of electricity generated by a wind turbine in the 10 years since its installation What the heck is kWh? It is a stupid unit, there are lots of stupid unit One smart unit: Joule 2 cents kWh = 20 dollars MWh = 20 dollars (1 million W x 3600 s) = 20 dollars (3.6 billion W x s) = 20 dollars (3.6 billion J) = 20 dollars (3.6 GJ) = 20 dollars (4GJ) = 5 dollars GJ (is this a lot of a little?) The PTC pays 5 GJ for the first 10 years How many GJ do wind turbines generate in 10 years? Let us imagine that we install 1 W of wind turbines The cost of utility scale wind is 1 W, so that 1W of rated power costs us 1 For wind, the capacity factor = 0.3 So, 1 W of rated power produces roughly 0.3 W of electricity How much energy does this 0.3 W amount to be in 10 years 0.3 watt x 10 years = 0.3 watt x 10 years x (30,000,000 s year) = 0.3 watt x 300,000,000 s = 90 MJ = 100 MJ = 0.1 GJ We pay 1 to install 1 W of rated power wind turbine, and that generates 0.1 GJ of electricity each decade The PTC pays: 0.1 GJ x (5GJ) = 0.5 The PTC effectively pays for roughly 50 of the installation 3) RPS Renewables portfolio standard: a requirement on retail electric suppliers To supply a minimum percentage or amount of their retail load with eligible sources of renewable energy 4) Net metering Net metering is a policy, which caries from state to state, that allows residential customers to pay only for the net amount of electricity they use I need 2.3 kW of rated power. How much would it cost to go solar, taking advantage of the ITC and net metering? Cost of installing residential solar is roughly 3 W (2.3 kW) x ( 3 W) x (10.3) ITC = 6.9 k x 0.7 = 7000 x 0.7 = 5000
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