Class 2 - Darwin

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Integrative Biology
Leslea Hlusko

IB 35 AC Summary  Paley = watch/creationism  Lamarck = inheritance of acquired characteristics  Lyell = (Hutton) uniformitarianism, over time  Cuvier = catastrophism  Wallace = same idea as Darwin, but stolen! 9/3/13 ~ Darwin and Evolutionary Theory  Everything we are able to do today is because of our biology  Due to EVOLUTION  William Paley o Natural Theology – aka pre-biology o The watchmaker analogy – design implies a designer.  Find a watch, didn’t just appear by chance. Has to have had a creator o Linneaous – classified, static o Paley – has to have God as a designer because it’s such a good design  Scientific proposition can be tested by observation o Aka can’t prove that God exists  By definition religion is not science  Jean-Baptiste Lamarck  Mechanism of evolution: o Inheritance of acquired characteristics (use and disuse of body parts) o You acquire it, then you pass it on to your offspring o Hereditary plasticity: things get better/progressive evolution  Ex: giraffe stretched necks  Teleology – circular logic o Ex: “I like yellow. Why? Because it’s my favorite. Why? Etc.” o Is not testable by observation o Can’t find out that giraffe has an inner drive to stretch out necks  Charles Darwin (1809-1882) o Rich & lots of siblings o Father = doctor, Charles = doctor first, then theology o Married Emma Wedgwood Darwin (also rich)  Becomes gentlemen’s companion - voyage on the Beagle o 2 issues: bio had non-scientific approach & organisms have inner drive to get better (intrinsic finality)  Needs to dispute to come up with his theory o 1831-1836, go through lots of places slowly (boats)  Allow them to see differences/geographic variation  Galapagos islands – lots of variation o Took book “Principles of Geology” by Charles Lyell  Hutton’s uniformitarianism  Geology is the result of processes happening today that accumulated over a long period of time  People shunned theory – earth is YOUNGGG o Georges Cuvier – catastrophism  Against Lyell  Fossils don’t look like current animals  Recognize change but thought that it was sudden  Makes more sense than Lyell because people thought the world was only 4,000 years old  Darwin’s most important observations on his trip: o Mainland finches look different than island (adaptive radiation)  Finches o All started with seed-eating ground finch o They all looked slightly different  Observations from trip: o 1. Organisms over produce but 2. population size stays stable (via death) o 3. Variation is an innate characteristic of life & 4. Kids look like parents (survival of the fittest)  TR Malthus (1798) made a graph  Time vs population is an exponential graph  Curves up/growing faster and faster  Resources are increasing but at a constant rate  Intersection with resources and population = crisis point o Carrying capacity!  Survival of the fittest/Social Darwinism o Darwin mainly talked about animals (not humans) o Herbert Spencer coined the term and applied it to humans  Poor people should die  Environment selects within the natural variation, causing evolution o Change over time is dependent on differential reproductive success o Learned by farmers – like cows that produce more milk, mate them aka artificial/breeding selection  So the environment is the breeders  Fitness/reproductive success o Individual fitness: MY success compared to OTHERS o Most successful at producing offspring  Frogs (R SPECIES) – make a lot of babies  Monkeys/Humans (K SPECIES) – maximize c
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