Class 4 - Primate Evolution

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University of California - Berkeley
Integrative Biology
Leslea Hlusko

IB 35 AC 9/10/13  Earth = 4.5 billion years old  Tetrapod = 375 million years old  Mammals: homiothermy, heterodontism, lactation, internal gestation o 1 mammal: hadrocardium o 4 types of mammals: montremes, marsupials, placentals, ____ o Closest connectiom: dermopterans  Pangea split! o Dinosaurs got extinct, 66 million years ago – comet  KNOW TIME PERIODS o Cenezoic and stuff  Climate changes o Need time to adapt in rapid change  Paleocene () o Mammals from era: purgatories, 30% of fossils  Eocene (55-34 mya) o Got really warm, really fast, cooled off gradually o Lemur things hopped across the continents  Oligocene o You are an ape. o Less forest o North America and Europe separate o El Fayum, Egypt = forest  Aegyptopithecus – monkey? Kind of?  Miocene o More oscillation in temperature o Good bye Mediterranean sea – affects climate of surrounding area o Warmer then cooler o Woodlands, bushlands, savannas o Africa and Eurasia have a reunion and cross produced o Yay apes. o Lots of apes in Europe, Asia (ex: Gigantopithecus blacki – HUGE, based on teeth) o Less apes  more monkeys (due to climate change)  YAY AFRICA o Lots of apes, ~18 o Best known: Proconsul – 4 species o Long limbs, no tail, walk on 4 limbs  Apes today o Gibbons (15 mya), orangutans (11 mya), gorillas (7 mya), chimps/bonobos (6 mya), humans o Look at last common ancestor to see derived and primitive traits  Hominidae o Large bipedal apes, lots of pair bonding o Chimps, bonobos, humans o Include African apes? No. adaptive regime! o Genuses show more specific traits within adaptive regime, more specific theme  Hominid Genera o GLCA – gorilla last common ancestor o CLCA – chimp last common ancestor  Pan  Ardipethicus – bipedal, climb trees, feminized/smaller/unsharpened cani
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