Class 8 - Genetics

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Integrative Biology
Leslea Hlusko

9/24/13  Important Terms o Gene: a section of DNA, affects phenotype o Allele: an alternative version of a gene o Genotype: the genetic constitution of an organism o Phenotype: observable properties of an organism (genotype + environment) o Genome: genes in gametes o Sequence: the specific nucleotide arrangement of a segment of DNA o Nucleotide: A, T, C, or G  Different types of genetics o Quantitative genetics: how variation is inherited within families (i.e., heritability analyses)  Mendel and pea plants  Statistics  How? o Developmental genetics: studies how genes are expressed during development  Morphology  How? o Population genetics: study of the allele frequencies within and between populations  Computer sequencing  Variation? o Genomics: statistical analyses that compare large sequences of DNA (often between different species)  Newer, more stats  How and variation?  Developmental terms o Zygote: fertilized egg o Embryo: week 1- week8 o Fetus: week 8 – birth o Ontogeny: development in life?  Similar morphology across different species o Ex: chicken vs human babies  Different genes determines different segments/head v tail end – earl development o How to find out purpose of gene – get rid of it and see its effect on the organism  Genome: complete sequencing, gene + chromosome o ~3bill base pairs, ~32k genes o Humans have 46 chromosomes, 23 from mom, 23 from dad o Karotype – map of chromosomes o Chimps (24) and humans (23) have all the same except in chromosome 2  Chromosomes are made of DNA and protein o Discovered in 1953 – tagged it with radioactive sulfur/phosphorus, use virus to infect cell – blender!  Phosphorus attached to DNA and showed up in cell  Sex vs gender – different  DNA is in a double
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