Class 14 - Mendel eyes, hair, and ears

3 Pages

Integrative Biology
Course Code
Leslea Hlusko

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10/15/13  Environment and Human culture acts as selecting agent  Genetic influence on phenotypic variation: o Monogenic – one gene (simplest)  Ex: peas o Oligogenic – a few genes  Ex: eye color o Polygenic – many genes  Ex: chlosteral, height  Pathological conditions, diseased conditions can be the result of extreme alleles of the genes involved in “normal” variation  Mendel 1865 – Austrian monk who worked with inheritance o Darwin had no clue how this happened (had a theory that was wrong) o Crossed true breeding pea plants – saw theme o Use Punnet squares/stats o Independent alleles  Very lucky he chose pea plants and certain phenotypes o Conclusions: inheritance is a transition of matter, offspring are averages of their parents, factors are inherited separately from each other  Terms: o Allele, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive phenotype, genotype  Earlobes: unattached – (E) dominant, attached – (e) recessive o Random variation, no adaptive significance? o On an autosomal chromosome  Marfan Syndrome o Autosome (Chromosome #15, FBN1) o Dominant o It is hereditary but it’s easy to get  Cystic Fibrosis o Autosomal o Recessive o Can be shown with pedigree  Huntington’s Disease o Autosomal (Chromosome #4, repeat CAG repeated 39+ times) o Dominant o Neurodegenerative, affects at 30-40 years old, more common with whites, no cure, more CAG = worse o Gets sick before you have kids later on  Albinism o Autosomal o Recessive o Albinism = monogenic, phenotypic affects = polygenic  Mutation in one gene but affects many genes o No pigmentation in skin, hair, eyes  Super sensitive to sun, hard to see st o Happens more often when people who are closely related mate (ex: 1 cousins) o Also in other animals, not just humans o Genes influe
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