PB HLTH 150B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Bromomethane, Environmental Epidemiology, Health Assessment

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Methyl bromide: pesticide that is toxic and prone to drift
Banned in 2005(ozone layer)
Participants from CHAMMACOS (Center for the Health assessment of mother and
children of Salinas)
Women interviewed at 3 different times during their pregnancy
Home inspections
Medical record
GIS used to determine how much methyl bromide
Potential for bias: response bise
In environmental epidemiology, exposures are usually involuntary
---Voluntary: occupational!
----Involuntary: They can be anywhere
Confounding and effect modification
Exposure like personal habits, socioeconomic factors, nutritional status, politial and legal
context, and genotype are often treated as
Confounders
Effect modifiers: magnify
Experimental: randomized control trials
Observations: prospective cohort
Retrospective cohort
Case-control studies
Why is Environmental epidemiology important?
Decrease in infectious diseases
Increase in human lifespan
Increase in chronic diseases----Epidemiological
Increased understanding of cancer latency--Environment important
Toxicology study demonstrations of cancer in animals
Increased analytical capabilities of chemists
80-90% of cancers due to environmental exposure
Odds Ratio (OR)= odds of disease among the exposed/odds of disease among the
unexposed
Relative Risk(RR)= Risk among the exposed/Risk among the unexposed
If OR/RR=1 risk is the same in the exposed and unexposed
If OR/RR >1 risk is higher in the exposed than the unexposed
If OR/RR <1 risk is lower in the exposed than the unexposed (Protective factor)
D+ D-
E+ 291 (A) 1060(B)
E- 232(C) 1399(D)
AD/BC=1.66
Association is not causation
Potency: slope of the linear dose-response curve
Reference Dose(RfD): an estimate of the dailt acute or chronic exposure that is likely to be
without risk of adverse effects
RdF=NOAFL or LOAEL/(UF* MF)
Hazar
Dis 9/12
Wednesday, September 12, 2018
4:15 PM
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Document Summary

Methyl bromide: pesticide that is toxic and prone to drift. Participants from chammacos (center for the health assessment of mother and children of salinas) Women interviewed at 3 different times during their pregnancy. Gis used to determine how much methyl bromide. Exposure like personal habits, socioeconomic factors, nutritional status, politial and legal context, and genotype are often treated as. Odds ratio (or)= odds of disease among the exposed/odds of disease among the unexposed. Relative risk(rr)= risk among the exposed/risk among the unexposed. If or/rr=1 risk is the same in the exposed and unexposed. If or/rr >1 risk is higher in the exposed than the unexposed. If or/rr <1 risk is lower in the exposed than the unexposed (protective factor) Reference dose(rfd): an estimate of the dailt acute or chronic exposure that is likely to be without risk of adverse effects.

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