PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Falsifiability, Research, Randomness

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15 Nov 2017
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Psychology: The Science
Silly Humans:
- Hindsight Bias- “I could have told you that.” “I wouldn’t have done that.”
- Overconfidence- You knew what was going on from the start, and you are
different from other people. “Should have asked me.”
- Patterns in Randomness (Patternicity)- When things seem to happen in a certain
sequence, we link them together even when there’s no relation. Complete
coincidence, but we start a superstitious belief. (Lucky socks for sports).
- Bandwagon- “If your friend jumped off a bridge, would you?” “Change your
beliefs to match friends.”
- “Not Me!”- Might happen to someone else, but not me. “I’m actually a better
driver when I drink.” (HAHAHA)
Modes of Thinking
1) Intuitive- Quick, get your through the day without wasting time. (Get in the
car and put the key in the ignition and turn) (It’s natural to do) (Done over
and over again) (Can save energy, and your life)
2) Analytical- Effortful thoughts, Takes more resources and time, complex or
rare situation. (Writing a paper, doing a calc problem, making an
investment)
In reality, we need more science and research to more accurately predict and
understand any phenomena.
But the conclusions are only as valuable as the scientific and research methods used to
collect data.
Read the material and don’t just take the statements at face value.
Critical Thinking- Exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating claims of others
and with one’s own assumptions and beliefs.
Characters of science
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1) Skepticism- Suspension of belief (Don’t jump in head first) (Question first)
2) Empiricism- Knowledge comes from data, data comes from systematic
observation, and data used to make a theory
3) Falsifiability- Ability to possibly be proven wrong
4) Replicability- must be clear enough for other people to repeat the same process
(Science Experiment)
5) Peer Review- Put all information out there, so people can verify and possibly
replicate
6) Occam’s Razor- Shaving away the fluff. Don’t over complicate, make it as simple
as possible, BASELINE EXPLINATION
Goals of Psychology Research
a. Describe- Who is aggressive
b. Explain- Why are they aggressive
c. Predict- How can I predict when they will be aggressive
d. Change/intervention- What will make this situation occur less, or not at all
Scientific Method- Process Overview
1) What do you want to know? (Question)
2) What do you REALLY mean by that? (Operational Definitions)
3) What do you expect the answer to be? (Hypothesis)
4) Where would this info come from? (Population)
5) How to get this info without testing every single potential person? (Sample)
6) Once you have them, how do you find out the information for which you’re
looking? (Design (details))
7) How to be sure your brilliant results aren’t due to something else?
(Power/confidence)
Operational Definitions- crystal clear explanation of a concept
Variable Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that
are either controlled or observed in a study.
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