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Lecture 12

CAS BI 216 Lecture 12: Genetics - Lecture 12 - Chapter 7, Chapter 8
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Department
Biology
Course
CAS BI 216
Professor
John Celenza
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 12 32317 (Chapter 7 and Chapter 8) MethylatingEthylating DNA Damage DNA damage ethylating agent (diethyl nitrosamine DEN; ethylmethane sulfonate EMS; Ethyl nitrosourea ENU) G > G* (G* is O^6 ethyl guanine) C > C G* pairs with thymine DNA repair of G* (e6G) GOet < HSCysteine (S from Cystein attacks ethyl group) EtSCys direct reversal DNA repair because no nucleotide removed Mutations ethylating agent > replication 1 > replication 2 Mutations are hereditable changes in DNA sequence G:C > A:T C:G > T:A not mutations G:T mismatch repair G*:C DNA damage G*:T (not mutation) Oxidation Damage to DNA many pathways O2 > converted to reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydroxyl radical >100 kinds of DNA damage from ROS quantitatively 8oxoguanine is most prevalent 8oxoguanine pairs frequently with adenine GO Mutagenic Pathway DNA Repair: Base Excision Repair (BER) Eukaryotes only 1. 8oxoG (GO (mistake) 2. DNA glycosylase removes GO base only > backbone remains wo base = AP site 3. AP endonuclease nicks 5 side AP site 4. DNA polymerases Delta or Epsilon synthesize DNA (synthesis first) 5. Nuclease (FEN1) removes 610 nucleotides (cleaving second) 6. DNA ligase seals the nick (sealing third) Many kinds of DNA damage lead to AP Site Formation GO Uracil in DNA Other DNA damage Hydrolysis Different DNA glycosylases Purine hydrolysis
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