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Review of Electron Transport Chain
We are going to simplify the electron transport chain and say 3H+ per NADH and 2H+
generated per FADH2
Membrane impermeable to most ions- impermeable to H+
Through ATP synthase, H+ ions are allowed to come through the membrane to
change from ADP to ATP.
Mitochondria have two membranes- inner and outer membrane
Protons are pumped into the intermembrane space by the ETC.
Proton gradient used to power ATP synthase.
Chemiosmosis- Chemiosmotic hypothesis of oxidative-phosphorylation. Proton
motive force drives ATP synthesis.
Chapter 8: Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
• ∆G = G products – G substrates
Gibbs free energy- deﬁned at constant temperature and pressure
∆H= Enthalpy (heat energy and bonding changes)
o Negative, heat given off (Favorable)
∆S= Entropy (disorder)
o Positive, disorder is greater (Favorable)
T= temperature in Kelvin
∆Go and K equilibrium (Keq)
• ∆Go= -2.303 RT [log10 Keq]
o R= 1.987 cal/oK (Universal gas constant)
Enzymes and Catalysts • Catalyst
o DO Increase the RATE of a reaction
o DO NOT affect the equilibrium of a reaction
o ARE NOT altered by a reaction
• How do they affect the rate of reaction? They affect the Activation Energy.
o Reaction Coordinate Diagram
o ∆G is negative (Reaction is favorable)
o Takes a lot of energy in order to break bonds (As bond(s) are broken in a