People started to migrate across the pacific. Genetic evidence suggests polynesians populated easter island. Used the tide patterns and how they differ when there are land masses nearby. Basically a map that charts out islands and wave patterns. Greeks traveled around the mediterranean sea but not outside of it. Farthest known extent of european exploration before columbus. Erik the red sailed west from iceland and discovered greenland. Bjarni herjolfsson missed greenland and is thought to be the first to see. Leif eriksson (son of erik the red) set out to find new foundland and he named it vinland (because of the grapes) Vikings left greenland and vinland and were gone by 1450. Less ice and snow ---> easy to navigate. Extensive exploration all throughout asia and different parts of arabia. Figured out how to grow vegetables on ships. Meant that he could go to sea longer and his men were in better condition.