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CAS CH 131 (61)


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CAS CH 131
Andrei Lapets

Thermodynamics • Thermodynamics 1. Relationships between thermal, mechanical, and electrical energy 2. Thermochemistry – energy changes associated with chemical reactions 3. Heat – thermal energy transferred when going from hot to cold 4. Work – mechanical energy when something is moved from one place to another 5. Radiant energy – solar energy from sun 6. Kinetic energy – energy from molecular motion 7. Potential energy – energy available by object’s position 8. First Law of Thermodynamics 1. (1) energy is conserved 2. (2) energy can assume many different forms that are interconvertible 3. (3) energy is not destroyed or created 9. Extensive property – a system is the sum of two subsystems 1. Mass, energy, volume 10. Intensive property – property of system and subsystem is the same 1. Temperature 11. Nearly all chemical reactions absorb or release heat 1. Open system 1. Exchange of mass and energy (heat, work) 2. Closed System 1. Exchange of energy 2. No flow of mass 3. Isolated System 1. No exchange of mass or energy 12. In chemical reactions, bond breaking needs energy 1. Thus, forming bonds releases energy 13. Exothermic Reaction 1. Releases heat to surroundings 2. 2H +2O  2H O +2energy 14. Endothermic Reaction 1. Heat is supplied to the system 2. Energy + 2HgO  2Hg + O 2 15. Heat units: 1 calorie = 4.184 J 16. Types of changes in energy 1. Conduction 1. Thermal energy vibrates molecules faster causing them to interact with adjacent molecules 2. Energy moves across substance by interaction between shaking molecules 3. Only solids 2. Convection 1. Gases and liquids 2. Bulk movement of fluid/gas as energy is transferred between molecules 3. With both types, molecules must collide and transfer kinetic energy 17. State Function 1. Properties determined by the state of the system no matter how that state was achieved 2. Magnitude only depends on the initial and final states 3. Temperature, pressure, volume 18. Path Function 1. Properties dependent on th
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