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Lecture 7

COMPLETE The Policymaking Process Lecture 7 Notes (4.0ed this course!)

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Boston University
Political Science
CAS PO 331

*Lecture#7 Thursday, February 6, 2014 9:35 AM - The Garbage Can Model • Decisions are supposed to solve the problems • Lots of decisions get made by oversight and flight ○ Important and earlier problems are more likely to be solved ○ Important choices are more likely to be made by flight and oversight and unimportant choices are more likely to made by resolutions • Garbage can is the choice and participants throw problems and solutions into the can ○ Problemsand solutions can go into different cans ○ Sometimeschoices are made but no problems area solved • Organized anarchies do not always solve problems but they identify them ○ Some problems get solved - Kingdon's PolicyStreams • Rational model is not accurate • Incrementalism does not deal with agenda setting because issues comeup suddenly • The three streams of government ○ Problems  The origin of problems cannot be found □ Focus events, shifts in national mood, indicators such as employment ○ Policy  Lots of problems and lots of solutions "in a soup"  No new ideas; old ideas gets "pulled out of the soup"  Specialists act in the policymaking;can be in or outside the government □ People cannot be involved in every issue  Policy entrepreneurs are willing to invest resources for personal interests  "Softening up": Taking a policy that is not likely to pass so politicians create more tolerance for it because people are not in favor of change □ This process can go on for a long time □ Presidential speeches, congressional hearings and other educational tools to raise awareness such as studies and reports □ The audience can be the broad public and or interest groups  How to keep a policy "alive" □ Technical feasibility  Able to be implemented □ Tolerable costs and limited space on agenda □ Values (efficiency, equity) [Stone concepts] □ Consensus building (persuasion in policy and bargaining in politics)  Band wagoning; people not wanting to be left behind ◊ Gradual snowball effect ◊ Linear increase  Tipping point; once an issue reaches a certain point, there is no return ◊ White flight; once the percentage of blacks
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