PS101 Lecture 9 (Chapter 6 cont.)

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

Edward L. Thorndike ● There is an “aha” moment when the cat realizes where the lever is and that it is escape. ● Law of Effect ○ Actions followed by a pleasurable consequence will tend to be repeated ○ Actions followed by an unpleasant consequence will tend NOT to be repeated B.F. Skinner ● Elaborated on Thorndike’s Law of Effect ● “Operant Conditioning” ● Voluntary behavior is what people/animals do to OPERATE in the world... ● ...Voluntary behavior is OPERANT behavior, and the learning of such behavior is OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant Conditioning ● The key to operant conditioning is the effect of consequences on behavior ● Learning depends on what happens AFTER the response - the consequence ● Learning/Associating actions with consequences ○ Actions followed by reinforcers increase ○ Actions followed by punishers decrease ● Reinforcement - anything that increases behavior and some behavior is more likely to occur Skinner Box - Operant Chamber ● Positive reinforcement - Pushing lever to get food ● Negative reinforcement - Pushing lever to get rid of some stimulus (electric shock) ● Cumulative Recorder ○ Graphic summary of mouse’s behavior responses over time ○ ● Acquisition ○ Initial stage of learning when a response gradually increases due to contingent reinforcement ● Shaping ○ Reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired response ○ Successive approximation - small steps getting to desired response ● Acquisition and Shaping ○ Ex. Dog jumping through raised hoop
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