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CAS PS 101 (266)
Lecture 15

PS101 Lecture 15

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

Sources of Misinformation ● Media portrayals of mental illness ○ Overemphasize extreme cases ○ Portray individuals with mental illness as dangerous ● Colloquial use of mental health terms ○ OCD ○ Schizophrenia ● Other sources of misinformation? ○ Therapy in films “Mental Illness” might mean... ● Having panic attacks (panic disorder) ● Worrying all the time (generalized anxiety disorder) ● Having very distorted body image (body dysmorphic dosorder) ● Hallucinating sounds or images (schizophrenia) ● Being unable to take pleasure in fun things (major depression) ● Being dependent on alcohol (substance use disorder) So, what IS mental illness? ● Difficult to define: ○ Exaggeration of normal and universal behavior ○ No “line” between normal and abnormal ● Common features of mental health problems ○ Deviant (i.e., doing or thinking something uncommon) ○ Maladaptive (i.e., creates problems) ○ Distressing Common Mental Illnesses ● Most common types of disorders:Anxiety disorders, mood disorders ● Three most common disorders: ○ Major Depression: will affect 3 in 10 people ○ Specific phobia: will affect 2 in 10 people ○ Social Phobia: will affect ~13% of population Who Treats Mental Illness? ● PhD-level psychologists ○ Primarily conduct psychotherapy ○ Clinical psychologists focus on mental disorders ○ Counseling psychologists focus on relationships, career, etc. ● Psychiatrists (MD) ○ Primarily prescribe medication ○ May also conduct psychotherapy ● Counselors and social workers ○ MAor BAlevel ● General practitioners ○ Provide the majority of mental health treatment * Less than 1/3 of the people get treated, and most of the treatment comes from general practitioners. Types of Mental Health Treatment ● Pharmacological interventions (drugs): ○ Antidepressants ■ SSRI - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor ○ Anxiolytics ○ Antipsychotics ○ Mood stabilizers ● Psychotherapy: ○ Many orientations, not all supported ○ Cognitive behavioral therapy ● Alternative interventions ○ E.g., yoga, acupuncture ○ Exercise Some Psychotherapeutic Orientations ● Psychoanalytic Therapy ○ Goal: Resolve unconscious conflicts ○ Focus: Early life experiences, sexual urges, dreams ○ Long and intensive, weak empirical support ● Client-centered Therapy ○ Goal: Foster self-worth and achieve congruence between personal identity and behavior ○ Focus: Creating a supportive therapeutic environment ● Mindfulness-based Therapy ○ Goal: Foster nonjudgmental observation of thoughts and emotions Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ● Family of treatments with a common goal: alleviate mental health problems by changing the thoughts and behaviors that maintain them ● Premise: Thoughts, behaviors and emotions all interact and contribute to psychopathology ● Features of CBT: Brief duration, clearly defined goals, focus on the present, homework assignments CBT Techniques: Cognitive Restructuring ● Premise: Thoughts influence emotion and behavior ● Goal: Identify, evaluate and change thoughts that contribute to mental health problems ● Three types of maladaptive thoughts: ○ Beliefs about the self ○ Beliefs about the world ○ Beliefs about the future ● Step 1:
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