Schultz (1992) Paper- “Predictive Reward Signal of Dopamine Neurons”
• Dopamine neurons respond more to unconditioned stimuli or to
• Dopamine neurons signal important and prominent stimuli, additionally
to motives and rewards.
• Experiment by Schultz
o Monkey sitting in front of box and has to reach to the back of
box to see what’s in it.
o Results show EMG response and the nerve impulses of
o Tonic dopamine cell firing
Happens when animal is awake
Doesn’t seem to be related to stimuli in environment.
o After touching food, burst of dopamine firing (slow in muscle
Called phasic burst of firing
• Up till now we know that dopamine is involved in voluntary motor