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Lecture 23

HIST 1220 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Double V Campaign, Civil Rights Cases, Earl Warren

Course Code
HIST 1220

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HIST1220: COURSE NOTES: Wednesday November 9, 2016
Pick up from previous class: Monday November 7, 2016
** No Class Friday November 11 due to Veterans Day but Essay II still due by 4:00.
WWII was a transforming event in this case for African Americans and the beginnings of
the so-called modern day, civil rights movement. During WWII over 700,000 African Americans
served in the armed forces and during that same war membership in the NAACP grew from
50,000 members to 450,000, so a nine-fold growth membership. The Double V campaign also
took place during this time, that double V being victory abroad to defeat those totalitarian
regimes and the other victory at home. In 1941 a leading civil rights leader from that period by
the name of A. Phillip Randolf he organized a March on Washington to protest that because of
discriminator hiring practices, African Americans were not being hired for employment in
defense related industries.
Rooseelt’s successor Truman was the first to enter the White House with a civil rights
agenda. With Truman at the helm, the Civil Rights Division was added to the federal
government. All discriminatory hiring practices were repealed and very importantly also led by
Truman, the U.S armed forces were integrated. Prior to this, black troops fought separately
from white troops. So the integration of the armed forces took place. Thus, when Americans
went off to war in Korea, that was the first war where both white and black troops fought
together. And it was during the Truman presidency when the U.S Supreme Court began to hand
down works to handle the civil rights movement. First in 1946 a Supreme Court decision,
Morgan v. Virginia. In which the Supreme Court argued that it was unconstitutional to
segregate the races on interstate transportation facilities (example, busses, such as
Greyhound). So in violation of the interstate commerce clause, in the constitution. Now, civil
rights, with the Supreme Court handing down a decision on behalf of the civil rights movement
it still depended on the legislative branches to enforce the decisions made. By large the courts
decision was largely ignored. As it was not properly informed, but nonetheless the Supreme
Court began to act on behalf of civil rights. Later in 1948, Supreme Court decision Shelley v.
Cramer this especially applied to bankers, real estate brokers would enter into hand-shake
agreements where homes would not be shown to, and mortgages would not be offered to
those of African American decent (for homes in white neighborhoods). Back then if one
purchased a home in a white middle-class neighborhood chances are there old be a stipulation
in the homeowner agreement that stated they could not sell to a minority family. Those co-vert
means of keeping the races segregated was illegal but the Morgan decisions would largely go
on for seven years.
Durig Trua’s presidec the NAACP ad their legal tea had logged seeral cases
into the federal court system that involved segregation on all levels. So taking place during
Trua’s teure as presidet, et, i Jauar Eisehoer as sor i as the et presidet.
Eisenhower was someone who believed there was no roll for government involving civil rights,
ending segregation, he believed it was up to blacks and whites themselves to find peace and
common ground. One of the first things Eisenhower had to do as president (one of the first
things) was nominate a new judge to the Supreme Court. He knew all of those civil rights cases
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