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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Meiosis, Nuclear Membrane, Nuclear Pore

4 pages207 viewsFall 2015

Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All
Chapter
Permachart

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BIOLOGY BASICS CELL BIOLOGY
• Biology: An interdisciplinary science of living systems
• Requires knowledge of physical sciences and math
• Humanity and environment have been affected by food additives,
drugs, insecticides, radiation, population control, and genetic
engineering
• Proportion of essentials is critical to survival
Cellular Biology
Cellular Biology
BASIS OF LIFE
KINGDOMS OF LIFE
Essentials Carbon • Oxygen Hydrogen • Nitrogen
• Phosphorus Sulfur
Characteristics Metabolism • Growth Reproduction
• Response to stimuli • Movement
Kingdom Monera Bacteria • Single-celled; no nucleus
• Prokaryotic (no nuclear membrane or
membrane-bound organelles)
Kingdom Protista Single-celled; distinct nuclei Motile;
simple nervous system
Kingdom Fungi Non-motile; no chloroplasts Absorb
nutrients; chitin cell wall
Kingdom Plantae Produce nutrients by photosynthesis
Kingdom Digest food from other organisms
Animalia outside cells; absorb product
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
DISEASE MECHANISMS
Biochemical
Organisms
Systems
Organs
Tissue
Cells
Organelles
Macromolecules
Small Molecules
Atoms
Atomic Particles
Taxonomic
Kingdom
Division
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Ecological
Ecosystems
Communities
Populations
• Life is divided into many
levels of organization
• The basic disciplines of
biology study life at one or
more of these levels
• Disease propagation in
human populations occurs by
disease mechanism(s)
Mechanisms:
Malnutrition
• Genetic
• Inflammation
• Pathogenic organisms
• Physical and chemical agents
• Auto-immunity
• Degeneration
• Cancer
ERAS OF THE EARTH
• Geological history is divided into 4 eons
polar head
lipid tail
Golgi apparatus
microtubules
in flagellum
mitochondrion
nuclear envelope
nucleolus
nucleus
rough endoplasmic
reticulum (ER)
cytosol
nuclear pore
nuclear pore
complex
membrane
protein
plasma membrane
smooth ER
cytoskeleton
EUKARYOTIC CELL
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
• Basic living unit that has capacity to maintain itself and
reproduce, given proper sources of energy and raw materials
Viruses Segments of DNA or RNA that use chromosomal
machinery of other cells to reproduce; when
dormant, they surround themselves with a protective
protein coat
Plasmids Circular DNA pieces that can replicate independently
of the chromosome; found in bacteria Enzymes
which cut DNA at specific sequences (restriction
endonucleases) are used to open plasmids and
insert DNA fragments Modified plasmid is inserted
into host cell; when it reproduces, so does the
plasmid, and inserted DNA is cloned
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
Bacteria Common name for vast group of single-celled,
microscopic organisms that encompasses smallest,
simplest, and (what may have been) first form of
cell life that evolved (see Kingdom Monera)
Prokaryotic (such as no nucleus or other
membrane-bound organelles in cytoplasm) • Single
chromosome (circular DNA molecule); many species
have plasmids Most cell walls are composed of
peptidoglycan • Most reproduce by binary fission
• Prokaryotes lack histones, cytoplasmic streaming,
membrane-bound organelles, complex 9-plus-2-
flagella, and microtubules; cell DNA exists as a
double strand
1 Hadean (4.5 bya) • Archean (3.8 bya [prokaryotic life]) and Proterozoic
(2.5 bya [first eukaryotes, animals]) equal 87% of geologic time; recent
(Phanerozoic) has 3 eras and 11 periods
2 Paleozoic era = 600 to 245 mya (8% of geologic time); periods include:
Permian (290 mya [Pangaea forms; mass extinction]) Carboniferous
(345 mya [first reptiles]) Devonian (400 mya [first insects, amphibians;
mass extinction]), Silurian (440 mya [first bony fishes; plants & animals go
on land]) Ordovician (500 mya [first jawless fishes; ends in mass
extinction]) • Cambrian (600 mya [animal phyla present; many algae])
3 Mesozoic era = 245–65 mya (4% of geologic time);
periods include: Cretaceous (138 mya [dinosaurs
extinct; plants and diatoms emerge]), Jurassic (145
mya [birds & flying reptiles appear]) and Triassic
(245 mya [giant reptiles, mammals])
4 Cenozoic era = 66 million years (1.5% of geologic
time); periods include: Quaternary (2 mya
[appearance of humans]) and Tertiary (66 mya
[appearance of primates])
Note: bya: billon years ago mya: million years ago
CELLULAR BIOLOGY A-802-8 1© 1997-2013 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
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