Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, atrial natruiretic peptide, special circulations

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Department
Biomedical Science
Course
BMS 420
Professor
Charles Miller
Semester
Fall

Description
8 October ↓ MAP → ↓ baroreceptors discharge → medullary cardiovascular centers → ↑ MAP If ↓ MAP - ↑ venous tone, ↑ cardiac contractility (↓ ESV), ↑ arteriole tone BP = CO x TPR (total peripheral resistance) Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system involved in long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure Sympathetic stimulation/hypotension/↓ sodium delivery → kidney → renin Renin acts on angiotensin → AI (angiotensin I) ACE (angiotensin converting enzymes) act on AI → AII AII → cardiac and vascular hypertrophy AII → systemic vasoconstriction → ↑ arterial pressure AII → thirst → ↑ blood volume → ↑ cardiac output → ↑ arterial pressure AII → adrenal cortex → aldosterone → renal sodium and fluid retention → ↑ blood volume → ↑ cardiac output → ↑ arterial pressure AII → renal sodium and fluid retention → ↑ blood volume → ↑ cardiac output → ↑ arterial pressure Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates long-term arterial blood pressure Atrial distension/sympathetic stimulation/angiotensin II/endothelin → heart → ANP ANP → ↓ SVR (systemic venous return) → ↓ arterial pressure ANP → ↓ CVP (cardiovascular pressure) → ↓ CO → ↓ arterial blood pressure ANP degraded by NEP ANP → ↑ GFR → natriuresis/diuresis → ↓ blood volume → ↓ CVP → ↓ CO → ↓arterial blood pressure ANP → ↑ GFR → ↓ renin release → ↓ angiotensin II → ↓ aldosterone Both decreased angiotensin II and decreased aldosterone lead to natriuresis/diuresis Vasopressin (ADH) regulates long-term arterial blood pressure Angiotensin II/hyperosmolarity/decreased atrial receptor firing/sympathetic stimulation → pituitary → vasopressin Vasopressin → vasoconstriction → increased arterial pressure
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