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Lecture 4

CHEM 107 Lecture 4: CHem 107 - Lecture 4

Course Code
CHEM 107
Mallory Monique Mentele

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Fundamentals of Chemistry
Heat and Temperature
All particles have an internal energy (particles are always moving)
The hotter the object, the more thermal energy it contains
Heat total energy of atoms in a substance
Temperature average energy of atoms in a substance
Heat capacity
Different materials respond differently to heat
Heat capacity (C) describes the ability of a material to absorb energy (heat)
Heat capacity quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a material by 1 K
Large heat capacity:
Difficult to raise temperature
Takes a long time to cool
Stores more energy
Small heat capacity:
Easier to raise temperature
Cools more quickly
Stores less energy
1 dm = 10-1 m: exponent always goes with base unit
Rutherford’s nuclear theory of the atom
1. Most of the atom’s mass and all of its positive charge are contained in the nucleus
2. Most of the volume of the atom is empty space through which tiny, negatively charged
electrons are dispersed.
3. There are an equal number of negatively charged electrons outside the nucleus and
positively charged particles inside the nucleus, so the atom is electrically neutral.
Subatomic particles
Located outside the nucleus making up the majority of the volume of the nucleus
Negatively charged with small mass that is ignored
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