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Lecture 4

CHEM 107 Lecture 4: CHem 107 - Lecture 4
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3 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 107
Professor
Mallory Monique Mentele

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Fundamentals of Chemistry
Heat and Temperature
All particles have an internal energy (particles are always moving)
The hotter the object, the more thermal energy it contains
Heat total energy of atoms in a substance
Temperature average energy of atoms in a substance
Heat capacity
Different materials respond differently to heat
Heat capacity (C) describes the ability of a material to absorb energy (heat)
Heat capacity quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a material by 1 K
Large heat capacity:
Difficult to raise temperature
Takes a long time to cool
Stores more energy
Small heat capacity:
Easier to raise temperature
Cools more quickly
Stores less energy
Review
1 dm = 10-1 m: exponent always goes with base unit
Rutherford’s nuclear theory of the atom
1. Most of the atom’s mass and all of its positive charge are contained in the nucleus
2. Most of the volume of the atom is empty space through which tiny, negatively charged
electrons are dispersed.
3. There are an equal number of negatively charged electrons outside the nucleus and
positively charged particles inside the nucleus, so the atom is electrically neutral.
Subatomic particles
Electrons
Located outside the nucleus making up the majority of the volume of the nucleus
Negatively charged with small mass that is ignored
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Description
Fundamentals of Chemistry Heat and Temperature All particles have an internal energy (particles are always moving) The hotter the object, the more thermal energy it contains Heat total energy of atoms in a substance Temperature average energy of atoms in a substance Heat capacity Different materials respond differently to heat Heat capacity (C) describes the ability of a material to absorb energy (heat) Heat capacity quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a material by 1 K Large heat capacity: Difficult to raise temperature Takes a long time to cool Stores more energy Small heat capacity: Easier to raise temperature Cools more quickly Stores less energy Review 1 dm = 10 m: exponent always goes with base unit Rutherfords nuclear theory of the atom 1. Most of the atoms mass and all of its positive charge are contained in the nucleus 2. Most of the volume of the atom is empty space through which tiny, negatively charged electrons are dispersed. 3. There are an equal number of negatively charged electrons outside the nucleus and positively charged particles inside the nucleus, so the atom is electrically neutral. Subatomic particles Electrons Located outside the nucleus making up the majority of the volume of the nucleus Negatively charged with small mass that is ignored
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