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Theoretical yield, percent yield, limiting reactant

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Colorado State University
CHEM 111
Dana Johnson

1 December Announcements Practice exam tonight 7 – 9 pm in A103 Final RamCT assignments CLASS part 2 MSLQ part 2 Final Reflection All open soon, close 12 / 15 Net reaction example 1. Cl + O →3ClO + O 2 2. 2ClO → ClOOCl 3. ClOOCl → 2Cl + O 2 2O →33O 2 Theoretical yield Every reaction considered has been perfect: Reactants completely react All product is formed The total amount of product is called theoretical yield and is unobtainable Side reactions occur Purifying products causes loss Percent yield Actual yield is what you get from the experiment Typically, results are given as a percentage of the theoretical yield Percent yield = Actual yield / theoretical yield x 100 Clicker question You react silver sulfide with excess hydrochloric acid to obtain AgCl, using the reaction below. If you react 50 g of silver sulfide and obtain 130 g of AgCl, what is your percent yield? Ag 2 (s) + 2HCl (aq) → 2AgCl (s) + H S 2g) A. 75.1% B. 70.3% C. 85.2% D. 90.5% 150 g Ag 2 x 1 mol Ag S /2247.87 g Ag S x22 mol AgCl / 1 mol Ag S x 142.35 g AgCl / 1 mol AgCl 173.498205 g AgCl → 173 g AgCl % yield = 0.751445 75.1% Limiting reactant Every reaction so far has a specified amount of one reactant while everything else is in excess We calculate amount of produce assuming that all reactant is used up That reactant ‘limits’ the reaction → the reaction stops when the reactant is gone Simple limiting reactant If all reactant amounts are specified, we must determine the limiting reactant before calculating product amounts Simple examples can be done by inspection: Ag S2(s) + 2HCl (aq) → 2AgCl (s) + H S (g) 2 1 mole of Ag S 2nd 3 moles of HCl → Ag S 2 2 moles of Ag S and 2 moles of HCl → HCl 2 3 moles of Ag S and 7 moles of HCl → Ag S 2 2 Complex limiting reactant More difficult probl
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