Voluntary movement, feed-forward control, feedback control, origin of efferent commands, motor pathways

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Health + Exercise Science
HES 319
Brian Tracy

12 February Voluntary Movements Mechanisms of control Feed-forward control Anticipatory Sensory input Use prior experience (prediction) Balance, posture Agonist-antagonist coactivation: stiffen joint, stabilize Feedback control Servo control During the movement Moment-to-moment Error comparison Compare desired state to actual state (from sensors) Reacts with a correction – so quickly that brain does not send command. Spinal cord, stretch reflex EMG – electromyography, shows muscle activation Feedback control: command specifies desired state Sensor (e.g., muscle spindle) → input processing → comparator Desired state also → comparator Comparator → error signal → controller → actuator (e.g., muscle) Continuous stream of information Feed-forward control: command specifies response Sensor → input processing → feedback signal Sensor detects distant events (e.g., eye) → input processing → feed-forward controller → anticipatory command Controller → actuator (e.g., muscle) Representation of the muscles on the motor
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