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LIFE 102 (201)

Codons, transcription, pre-mRNA, translation, transfer RNA, protein folding, targeting polypeptides

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Colorado State University
Life Science
LIFE 102
Louis Bjostad

13 AprilA primary transcript is the initial RNA transcript from any geneThe central dogma is the concept that cells are governed by a cellular chain of command DNARNAproteinCodons Triplets of BasesCodons along an mRNA molecule are read by translation machinery in the 5 to 3 directionEach codon specifies the addition of one to 20 amino acidsCracking the CodeAll 64 codons were deciphered by the mid1960sOf the 64 triplets 61 code for amino acids 3 triplets are stop signals to end translationThe genetic code is redundant but not ambiguous no codon specifies more than one amino acidCodons must be read in the correct reading frame correct groupings in order for the specified polypeptide to be producedEvolution of the Genetic CodeThe genetic code is nearly universal shared by the simplest bacteria to the most complex animalsGenes can be transcribed and translated after being transplanted from one species to anotherMolecular Components of TranscriptionRNA synthesis is catalyzed by RNA polymerase which pries the DNA strands apart and hooks together the RNA nucleotidesRNA synthesis follows the same basepairing rules as DNA except uracil substitutes for thymineThe DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches is called the promoter in bacteria the sequence signaling the end of transcription is called the terminatorThe stretch of DNA that is transcribed is called a transcription unit
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