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Gibbs free energy (G), coupled reactions

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Life Science
LIFE 210
Paul Laybourn

26 August Gibbs Free Energy (G) of molecules – available for work Each molecule has a G G depends on Temperature (T), Concentration, Oxidation State Change of G (ΔG), each reaction has a ΔG ΔG = G productsGreactants =ΔH – TΔS H – enthalpy; potential and kinetic energy (E) S – entropy – randomness or disorder Related Laws of Thermodynamics st 1 – E (H) is conserved in the universe 2 – the universe tends toward disorder Cells and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Erwin Schrödinger, in What is Life (1944), wondered “How can the events in time and space which take place within the spatial boundary of a living organism be accounted for by physics and chemistry?” Nutrients + Cell → 2 Cells + Waste Nutrients → Cell + Waste Less order → More order Change in Free Energy (ΔG) in Cellular Reactions Will a reaction X → Y occur as written spontaneously (on own)? Will it proceed X → Y or Y → X? How far will it proceed (how much X converted to Y)? Spontaneous ΔG < 0 Requires E input or spontaneous in reverse ΔG > 0 Equilibrium ΔG = 0 Is A ↔ B reaction favorable (or is B ↔ A)? Determined by thermodynamics, the change in free energy or ΔG Described mathematically by ΔG = ΔH – TΔS (T = temperature in K) Enthalpy (ΔH) Energy (heat, potential E) Entropy (ΔS) Disorder (degrees of freedom, possibilities, probability) -ΔG (<0) is favorable ΔG also determined by the concentration of reactants a
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