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Lecture 6

ANAT 101 Lecture 6: Anatomy Chapter 6

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ANAT 101
Michael Bruneau

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find more resources at Anatomy Chapter 6 Functions of the Bone 1) Support a. Support soft tissue and provide attachment points 2) Protection a. Protect organs 3) Assistance in movement a. Skeletal muscles attach to bones to help w/ movement 4) Mineral homeostasis (store and release) a. Stores calcium and phosphorous for strength but releases minerals into blood to maintain balance 5) Cell production a. Red marrow makes RBC, WBC and platelets (hemopoiesis) 6) Triglyceride storage a. Yellow marrow store triglycerides for energy Structure of the bone 1) Diaphysis a. The shaft/ body of the bone 2) Epiphyses a. Proximal and distral ends 3) Metaphysis a. Between the diaphysis and epiphyses b. Has the epiphyseal plate which allows bone growth 4) Articular cartilage a. Thin layer covering the epiphyses where bone forms a joint b. Reduced friction and shock 5) Periosteum a. Tough connective tissue w/ blood supply b. Surround diaphysis c. Enable the bone to get thicker d. Protects bone, repairs 6) Medullary cavity a. Has yellow bone marrow b. Hollow and reduces dense bony material to make the weight lighter 7) Endosteum a. Lines medullary cavity Bone Tissue - The ECM has: o Water, collagen fiber, mineral salts (Calcium phosphate) - Calcification: o Initiated by osteoblasts cells which secrete fibers and ecm o Mineral salts crystalize between collagen fiber spaces and when the space is filled, they accumulate around the collagen fiber find more resources at find more resources at - Hardness depends on crystalized salts and flexibility depends on the collagen fibers and its tensile strength Four Types of Cells in Bone Tissue 1) Osteoprogenitor Cells a. Stem cells b. Develops into osteoblasts 2) Osteoblasts a. Bone building cells b. Make and secrete collagen fibers and ECM c. Start calcification d. Become osteocytes when they get trapped in the secreted ECM 3) Osteocytes a. Mature bone cells b. Main cells in bone tissue and maintain metabolism 4) Osteoclasts a. Releases lysosomal enzymes and acids to digest protein and minerals of the extracellular matrix (resorption) b. Regulate blood Ca by making calcium release c. Remodel/ Carve out bone Compact Vs Spongy Bone - Compact o Strongest bone o long bones o Provide protection, support and resist weight stress o Made of osteons and have osteocytes within lacunae o Has a route for nutrients and oxygen to reach the osteocytes and removal of waste o Interstitial lamellae:  Older osteons that are kinda destroyed during rebuilding and growth o Circumferential lamellae:  Develop during initial bone formation - Spongy o Does not contain osteons o In the interior of the short, flat, sesamoid and irregular shape bone o Consists of trabeculae:  Lamellae arranged in irregular patterns of thin columns  Support and protect red marrow o Always covered by compact bone o Located where there is little stress or where the stress is applied in many directions o Light weight that allows the bone to move o Provide tissue support o Turned over quicker find more resources at find more resources at Bone Formation - Ossification: the process in which bone forms - Bones grow: o During embvroyological and fetal development o Before adulthood o When bones remodel o When fractures heal - Initial bone formation in embryo and fetus o Two patterns of bone formation which both involve replacement of preexisting connective tissue w/ bone:  Intramembranous ossification  Endochondral ossification - Intramembranous Ossification: o Occurs in flat bone when connective tissue membrane is replaced by bone o Bone forms directly within mesenchyme which is arranged in sheet layers that resemble membranes 1) Development of ossification center a. Mesenchyme cells differentiate at ossification center into osteoblasts which secrete ECM of bone 2) Calcification a. Cells become osteocytes b. Calcium and mineral salts are deposited and ECM hardens 3) Formation of Trabeculae a. Bone of ECM forms and becomes trabeculae which fuse and form spongy bone 4) Development of periosteum a.
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