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Lecture 6

ANAT 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Chondroblast, Surface 3, CalcitriolPremium

5 pages16 viewsFall 2016

Department
Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 101
Professor
Michael Bruneau
Lecture
6

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Anatomy Chapter 6
Functions of the Bone
1) Support
a. Support soft tissue and provide attachment points
2) Protection
a. Protect organs
3) Assistance in movement
a. Skeletal muscles attach to bones to help w/ movement
4) Mineral homeostasis (store and release)
a. Stores calcium and phosphorous for strength but releases minerals into blood to
maintain balance
5) Cell production
a. Red marrow makes RBC, WBC and platelets (hemopoiesis)
6) Triglyceride storage
a. Yellow marrow store triglycerides for energy
Structure of the bone
1) Diaphysis
a. The shaft/ body of the bone
2) Epiphyses
a. Proximal and distral ends
3) Metaphysis
a. Between the diaphysis and epiphyses
b. Has the epiphyseal plate which allows bone growth
4) Articular cartilage
a. Thin layer covering the epiphyses where bone forms a joint
b. Reduced friction and shock
5) Periosteum
a. Tough connective tissue w/ blood supply
b. Surround diaphysis
c. Enable the bone to get thicker
d. Protects bone, repairs
6) Medullary cavity
a. Has yellow bone marrow
b. Hollow and reduces dense bony material to make the weight lighter
7) Endosteum
a. Lines medullary cavity
Bone Tissue
- The ECM has:
o Water, collagen fiber, mineral salts (Calcium phosphate)
- Calcification:
o Initiated by osteoblasts cells which secrete fibers and ecm
o Mineral salts crystalize between collagen fiber spaces and when the space is
filled, they accumulate around the collagen fiber
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- Hardness depends on crystalized salts and flexibility depends on the collagen fibers and
its tensile strength
Four Types of Cells in Bone Tissue
1) Osteoprogenitor Cells
a. Stem cells
b. Develops into osteoblasts
2) Osteoblasts
a. Bone building cells
b. Make and secrete collagen fibers and ECM
c. Start calcification
d. Become osteocytes when they get trapped in the secreted ECM
3) Osteocytes
a. Mature bone cells
b. Main cells in bone tissue and maintain metabolism
4) Osteoclasts
a. Releases lysosomal enzymes and acids to digest protein and minerals of the
extracellular matrix (resorption)
b. Regulate blood Ca by making calcium release
c. Remodel/ Carve out bone
Compact Vs Spongy Bone
- Compact
o Strongest bone
o long bones
o Provide protection, support and resist weight stress
o Made of osteons and have osteocytes within lacunae
o Has a route for nutrients and oxygen to reach the osteocytes and removal of waste
o Interstitial lamellae:
Older osteons that are kinda destroyed during rebuilding and growth
o Circumferential lamellae:
Develop during initial bone formation
- Spongy
o Does not contain osteons
o In the interior of the short, flat, sesamoid and irregular shape bone
o Consists of trabeculae:
Lamellae arranged in irregular patterns of thin columns
Support and protect red marrow
o Always covered by compact bone
o Located where there is little stress or where the stress is applied in many
directions
o Light weight that allows the bone to move
o Provide tissue support
o Turned over quicker
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