NEUROSCI 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Vagus Nerve, Cortisol, Pituitary Gland

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17 May 2016
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1. What 2 hormones are involved with the stress response? Where do they come from and
what controls their release?
a. Epinepherine (adrenaline) - released by adrenal glands in kidneys but vagus
nerve controls the response
b. Cortisol
b.i. ATCH released from the pituitary, regulated by CRF (corticotrophic
releasing factor) controlled by the hypothalamus,
b.ii. Stress -> CRF -> ATCH -> Cortisol
2. How is the hippocampus involved with the stress response?
a. The hippocampus has glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which is important for
the negative feedback loop. GR is bound to by cortisol, a protein that alleviates
stress.
3. Why is our response to short term stress adaptive while our physiological responses to
long term stress maladaptive?
a. Continuing to activate the glucose systems can shut down reproductive systems
or circadian cycles.
b. Can’t shut down the short term stress cycle because it’s important, but not
designed
4. What hormone causes the damage in long term stress? Where does that hormone work
that produces the damage?
a. Cortisol - designed to release sugar into your bloodstream
b. Activated in hippocampus or anywhere in the brain that produces GR receptors
5. What can alleviate stress?
a. Sleep
b. Exercise - stimulates similar responses such as increased heart rate and release
of positive hormones
c. Socialization
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