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Lecture 4

PHILO-120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Glaucon, Counterexample, Thought Experiment

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Intro to Philosophy
Fall 2018
Thrasymachus’s Arguments in Republic 1
First Argument: What counts as Justice depends on laws enacted by rulers.
In every city, the stronger rule.
In every city, the rulers make laws advantageous to themselves.
In every city, justice consists in obedience to those laws.
So in every city, justice consists in obedience of those laws.
Therefore, since the rulers are stronger, justice is the advantage of the stronger.
Socrates’s Procedure
Advance counterexamples
Counterexample: an example that contradicts or opposes an idea or theory.
What are some counter arguments Socrates used?
More Arguments
Second Argument: Justice is merely of who is in power and when. The unjust person is
happier than the just person because he/she achieves their own advantage. Injustice is
“wisdom” in that an unjust person will achieve their own advantage.
The just man is everywhere at a disadvantage in comparison to the unjust man.
The unjust man is stronger than the just man.
Injustice is stronger than justice.
The stronger is everywhere at an advantage in comparison to the just man.
Justice is the advantage of the stronger.
But therefore justice is the good of another. (Nothing can be stronger than itself.)
Injustice is one’s advantage.
Corollary: Justice is virtue or wisdom. (348e1-3)
Structure of Republic 2:
Glaucon’s Challenge (Stript the concept of Justice and focus on how being justice
benefits to the individuals regardless of the person is taken to be Just.)
Distinction between goods: intrinsic; extrinsic; intrinsic & extrinsic
Socrates believed Justice is valuable for own sake and in virtue of
Origins of justice
According to Glaucon, justice is a convention people enter into
because they’re afraid of being the victims of injustice.
Rings of Gyges
Thought experiment (device of the imagination used to
investigate the nature of things)
See above notes.
Meant to put pressure on what justice is.
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