For the dogs, the sound of the bell is connected to the food and they salivate whenever they hear the bell, anticipating being fed: ex. School bell- this neutral sound changed bc you hear it and school is over: us: food, ur: dog salivates, ns: bell, cs: bell, cr: salivation to bell, ex. Higher- order conditioning (second order conditioning: when one cs stimulus is used to reinforce a second cs/ the cs in one experience is paired with a different ns to create a second cs. Initial conditioning: example, ns- fragrance, us- your girlfriend/boyfriend, ur- joy/ happiness, cs: fragrance, cr: happiness. Examples: associate polly pockets with money, when you get money you get a certain sense of joy, a check that represents money. Little albert was scared of all white things (santa claus) because they reminded him of the rat.