SYG 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Insider Trading, Embezzlement, Corporate Crime

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21 Apr 2016
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CHAPTER 8: DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL
I. DEVIANCE
A. DEFINITION: Any behavior that does not conform to your society’s norms
B. SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED What is considered “deviant” varies across time &
place
II. SOCIAL CONTROL
A. DEFINITION: Ways we promote conformity to norms
B. EXTERNAL: sanctions (formal/informal rewards & punishments); threat of punishment
VS
INTERNAL: internalize norms (Mead’s “generalized other”, a.k.a.: conscience); guilty
feeing
III. EXPLANATIONS OF DEVIANCE
A. BIOLOGICAL: predispositions to deviant behavior
B. PSYCHOLOGICAL: deviant “personality
C. SOCIOLOGICAL
1. STRAIN THEORY: deviance occurs when there is a conflict between goals and
means
2. CONTROL THEORY: Strong social bonds help prevent deviance; weak
bonds deviance
3. DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY:cultural transmission” = we
learn deviant behavior from the people we are around
4. LABELING THEORY: Deviance exists when some members of a group/society
label someone as deviant
1. Primary Deviation (First act that’s considered deviant)
2. Secondary Deviation (Caught; labeled “deviant” by people; over time you believe the
label is true)
3. Self-fulfilling Prophecy (Do even more deviant behavior)
4.
IV. CRIME IN THE U.S.
A. STATISTICS – F.B.I. UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (Volunteered by police
depts. across the U.S.)
**Underreporting
**Fudging numbers
B. CRITICISM OF UCR STATISTICS
1. PROBLEM: IGNORES DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRIME
+ Included:
--Street crimes (crimes committed against a person or their property)
+ Not included:
--White collar crimes (crimes committed by upper class; usually to do w/ business
activities = $$), e.g.: Tax fraud/evasion, embezzlement, insider trading
--Corporate crime (committed by business themselves), e.g.: selling faulty products,
workplace discrimination, hazardous working conditions
+ Costs
--Monetary: White collar & corporate crime costs over $4 billion (probably more?)
--Lives: every year in the U.S. over 5x more people are killed from hazardous
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