CLP 3140 Lecture 17: Chapter 10- Substance Use and Addictive Disorders

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Florida Gulf Coast University
Clinical Psychology
CLP 3140

Chapter 10- Substance Use and Addictive Disorders - Drug: defined as any substance other than food that affects our body or minds - “Substance”: frequently used in place of “drug”, in part because many people fail to see that such substances as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine are drugs too. - Substance intoxication: substances may cause temporary changes in behavior, emotion, or thought; this cluster of change o Alcohol intoxication: excessive amount of alcohol that may lead to a temporary state of poor judgement, mood changes, irritability, slurred speech, and poor coordination. o Hallucinogen intoxication: largely of perceptual distortions and hallucinogens. - Substance use disorders: pattern of long-term maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated use of a substance. o Dx checklist: ▪ 1. Individuals display a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment or distress. ▪ 2. Presence of at least 2 of the following symptoms within a 1- year period. • Substance is often taken in large amounts or over a longer period than intended. • Unsuccessful efforts or persistent desire to reduce or control substance error. • Much time spent trying to obtain, use, or recover from the effects of substance • Failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school or home as a result of repeated substance • Continued use of substance despite persistent social or interpersonal problems caused by it. • Cessation or reduction of important social, occupational, or recreational activities because of substance use. • Continuing to use substance despite awareness that it is causing or worsening a physical or psychological problem • Craving for substsances • Tolerance effects • Withdrawal reactions - Tolerance: the brain and body’s need for ever large doses of a drug to produce earlier effects. - Withdrawl: unpleasant, sometimes dangerous reactions that may occur when people who use a drug regularly stop taking or reduce their dosage of the drug. - 8.9% of all teens and adults in the United States, over 23 million people, have a substance use disorder. o Only 11% receive treatment from a mental health professional - The substances people misuse fall into several categories: depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and cannabis Depressants - depressants: reduce tension and inhibitors and may interfere with a person’s judgment, motor activity, and concentration. o Three most widely used groups of depressants are alcohol, sedative, hypnotic drugs, and opoids. Alcohol - alcohol: any beverage containing ethyl alcohol, including beer, wine, and liquior. o Binge- drinking: consuming five or more drinks on a single occasion. - The ethyl alcohol immediately begins to take effect as it carried in the bloodstream to the central nervous system. o At first ethyl alcohol depresses the areas of the brain that control judgment and inhibition; people become looser, more talkative, and often more friendly. o Motor difficultuties increase as a person continues drinking, and reaction times slow. o Levels of impairment are closely related to the concentration of ethyl alcohol in the blood. Alcohol Use Disorder - Alcohol is actually one of the most dangerous of recreational drugs, and it reach extends across the life span. o Alcholism Clinical Picture - People with alcohol use disorder drink large amounts regularly and rely on it to enable them to do things that would otherwise make them anxious. Tolerance and Withdrawl - tolerance- need to drink ever large amounts to feel its effect. - Withdrawl: can cause [hands, tongue, and eyelids] shaking, feel weak and nauseated; sweat and vomit; heat beats rapidly; blood pressure rises, can cause anxious, depression, sleep deprevation, or irritability. - Delirium tremens (“the DTs): a dramatic withdrawl reaction that some people who are dependent on alcohol have. It consists of confusion, clouded consciousness, and terrifying visual hallucinations. What is the Personal and Social Impact of Alcoholism? - Medical treatment, lost productivity, and losses due to deaths from alcoholism cost society many billions of dollar annually. - Alcoholism has serious effects on the 30 million children of people with this disorder. - Long-term excessive drinking can also seriously damage a person’s physical health. o Overworks the liver that can develop cirrhosis. o Damage the heart and lower the immune system’s ability to fight off cancer, bacterial infections, and AIDS. - Korsakoff’s syndrome: an alcohol-related disorder marked by extreme confusion, memory impairment, and other neurological symptoms. - Fe
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