34. How does the idea of mindlessness relate to persuasion? What is the Elaboration
Likelihood Model? What are two routes of the ELM? What is the differences between the
Many decisions are made without careful thought
We are often persuaded by unimportant variables
o Photocopier study
o Basic assumption: People do not have the motivation or ability to evaluate
all messages carefully
o The amount and nature of the thinking that accompanies a persuasive
message determines the type of persuasion that occurs
o There are two routes:
Peripheral route: occurs when people rely on simple cues present
in a situation (e.g., source credibility, attractiveness, humor)
Central route: occurs when people carefully think about
information relevant to the persuasive message (e.g., argument
quality, logical coherence)
35. What would lead someone to be persuaded along one route, but not the other? If you
are trying to persuade someone, what sorts of cues would you use if your audience was
primarily using the peripheral route? The central route?
There are three things that affect how we are persuaded:
o The audience
o The source of the message
o And the message itself
The more involved the audience is, and the more relevant the information is to the
audience, the more likely they are to use the central route.
People high in need of cognition enjoy thinking and analyzing; they tend to use
the central route.
People low in NC do not enjoy thinking and analyzing; they tend to use the
36. What characteristics of the audience lead people to be persuaded along one route or
the other? What characteristics of the source lead people to be persuaded along one route
or the other?
o The more involved the audience is, and the more relevant the information
is to the audience, the more likely they are to use the central route.
o People high in need of cognition enjoy thinking and analyzing; they tend
to use the central route.
o People low in NC do not enjoy thinking and analyzing; they tend to use
the peripheral route
o Credibility: 2 components: Expertise and trustworthiness
Speakers who are perceived as knowledgeable and trustworthy are
more persuasive Sleeper effect: A delayed increase in the persuasive impact of a
o Attractiveness: 2 components: similarity and physical appeal
Commercials tend to use physically attractive celebrities to endorse
Political ads often use “the average American” to promote a
37. What is the sleeper effect? How does it relate to persuasion?
Sleeper effect: A delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially
discounted message becomes effective, such as we remember the message but
forget the reason for discounting it.
o People forget the source or its connection to the message
41. Do frightening messages work at persuading people? What about messages that
produce positive emotions?
Fear appraisals: Fear can create attitude change IF the audience is told how to
avoid the danger
o Jim jones and the peoples temples…fear of the govt=drink the koolaid
Positive emotions: Feeling good leads to a more positive outlook, which increases
one‟s tendency to use the peripheral route to persuasion
o E.g., People who watch commercials while eating are more easily
persuaded than those who watch the commercials but don‟t eat.
42. How do the following relate to the persuasiveness of a message:
-Discrepancy, one-sidedness vs two-sidedness, timing of the messages
Moderate discrepancy is best - too extreme a position will lead people to quickly
reject and refute the arguments.
o For example: I believe the budget is great but we could use help on…
People will agree that the budget is great and agree that they need
If you say “the budget is great”
People might disagree
One-sided vs. two-sided
o When trying to persuade, is it better to acknowledge opposing viewpoints?
Trying to see both points of view
o One-sided: good when the audience already agrees or is oblivious to other
Examples: at a Party meeting, a Republ