ANT-2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Olduvai Gorge, Altricial, Stone Tool

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1 Nov 2016
October 31st
Homo ergaster is the African homo erectus
Richard Leakey and Kamoya Kimeu
- WT-15000 Nariokotoe oywho was 8-9 years old at the age of death
- Found on the west side of Lake Turkana
- 1.6 million years old
- 90% complete skeleton
- cranium + post-cranial bones of a single individual
first evidence of dramatic brain size expansion and brain/body ratios that
deviate from ape pattern
- the dental enamel shows that the growth rate is faster than in modern humans,
showing that maturity is reached faster than in modern humans
chimpanzees are adults at age 12-14
- committed to terrestrial living; long distance running
- the ribcage and pelvis suggested a modern short gut which means eating nutrient
dense food
- small birth canal suggests that infants must be born altricial (like those of modern
humans), increasing dependence on caretakers
- narrow spinal cordno control of breathing
- etral positio of the forae agu idiates Nariokotoe’s head was
centered over the vertebral column like in humans
ligaments and tendons act like springs that store and release mechanical energy
Olduvai Gorge Tanzania
- Oldowan toolsearliest stone tool tradition
- Cutting edge with few flakes removed
- Stone is not native to Olduvai
- Hominins are rearranging the landscape
Acheulian tool tradition
- Found in Africa, Europe, and middle east
- Increased specialization and standardization compared to Oldowan
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