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ANT 2301 (23)

Sexual Coercion

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Florida State University
ANT 2301
Geoffrey Thomas

ANT NOTES 10-29  Sexual Coercion o Receiving or performing sexual acts involving another individual w/out that individual’s consent, knowledge, or explicit awareness of the act o Use of force to receive or perform sexual acts involving another o Distinct from rape  More cultural connotations  Naturalistic Fallacy- the error of deriving what ought to be from what is  Genetic Determinism- idea that behavior is unalterable, programmed, and unchangeable  Sexual Coercion and Theory o Evolutionary theory often camps things in cost/ benefit relationships and notion of reproductive success  Only in context of natural selection o Assumptions  Natural selection- mechanism by which species evolve and adapt  Range of responses depend on evolved psychological mechanisms o Necessary to solve recurring problems that affect reproductive success and survival  All work together to produce behavior o Recognizing  Primarily focus on male-Female coercion  For primates:  Occurs during estrus compared to non-estrus  For hominins:  Concealed ovulation and continual attractiveness in humans o More continual coercion  When procreation is the primary focus  Evolutionary expectations (works for hominins)  If female isn’t fertile, doesn’t enhance male RS  Rate of occurrence  Ensure paternity but avoid penalty  Expect it to be a tactic of males with low mate value, few mating opportunities  Proponents of evolutionary research  Thornhill & palmer argue that coercion has evolved over human history, along w/ courtship, sexual attraction, and other behaviors o Over past few million years  Evolutionary perspective o In a certain circumstances a coercion strategy (male> female) benefits a males RS o Most evolutionary explanations focus on why males perform this behavior o 9/10 reported rape victims are female  Females are choosier, males have been selected to find a way to be chosen o By possessing traits that females prefer o Gain access to females through competition o Gain access to females through sexual coercion  Only 1 hypothesis supported: (Thornhill and Palmer) o Rape is not an adaptation, but a by-product of evolved differences in male and female sexual strategies  Evolutionary Psychology expectation  Mckibbin o Agree that coercion is a conditional strategy based on ancestral contexts but al include individual differences o Authors believe rape is more likely to occur under specific environmental circumstances that activate some men’s “evolved psychological mechanisms” o Proposed 5 types of rapists  Disadvantaged  Males motivated to rape when have no other means of copulation  Correlates w/ low socioeconomic status as well as higher degrees of facial asymmetry  Specialized  Sexually aroused by violence  Convicted rapists are known to show greater arousal to acts of sexual violence than nonrapists  Opportunistic  Seek out receptive women, but may resort to rape when cost of retaliation is low  Often occurs during wartime  High mating- effort  Aggressive, dominant males w/ high self-esteem and more sexual experience  Pursue many partners w/ little to no investment and use rape when no
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