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Lecture 14

BSC 2085 Lecture 14: LESSON 14 notes

4 Pages
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Department
Biological Science
Course Code
BSC-2085
Professor
Yung Su

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Description
LESSON 14 1. Describe the two different types of synapses. Where are some of these synapses found? Electrical synapses Direct physical contact between cells Are locked together at gap junctions (connexons) Allow ions to pass between cells Produce continuous local current and action potential propagation Are found in areas of brain, eye, ciliary ganglia (PNS), cardiac muscle cells Chemical synapses Signal transmitted across a gap by chemical neurotransmitters Are found in most synapses between neurons and all synapses between neurons and other cells Cells not in direct contact Action potential may or may not be propagated to postsynaptic cell, depending on: o Amount of neurotransmitter released o Sensitivity of postsynaptic cell 2. Explain the difference between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. What kind of graded potentials do they generate? The excitatory neurotransmitter generates action potential by depolarizing the cell and the inhibitory neurotransmitter prevents action potential by hyperpolarizing the cell. 1. Excitatory neurotransmitters Cause depolarization of postsynaptic membranes Promote action potentials 2. Inhibitory neurotransmitters Cause hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membranes Suppress action potentials 3. Describe the cholinergic synapse. What happens to the presynaptic neuron to cause the release of acetylcholine (ACh)? The effect of the neurotransmitter depends on the receptor. Cholinergic Synapses Any synapse that releases ACh at: 1. All neuromuscular junctions with skeletal muscle fibers 2. Many synapses in CNS 3. All neurontoneuron synapses in PNS 4. All neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions of ANS parasympathetic division Events at a Cholinergic Synapse Action potential arrives, depolarizes synaptic terminal Calcium ions enter synaptic terminal through voltagegated calcium channels (these open because of action potential reaching the axon terminal), trigger exocytosis of ACh ACh binds to receptors on postsynaptic cell, depolarizes postsynaptic membrane ACh removed by AChE (acetylcholinesterase) 1. AChE breaks ACh into acetate and choline 4. Explain synaptic delay and synaptic fatigue. What causes these? Synaptic Delay A synaptic delay of 0.20.5 msec occurs between: Arrival of action potential at synaptic terminal And effect on postsynaptic membrane Fewer synapses means faster response Reflexes may involve only one synapse Synaptic Fatigue
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