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ENC 3021 (2)
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Lecture

major historical periods of rhetoric.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
ENC 3021
Professor
Rory Lee
Semester
Summer

Description
major historical periods of rhetoric classical (500 BCCE-400 CE)  ancient Greece o Aristotle  Aristotelien  Earth  science/empirical (most probable) o Plato  Platonic  truth/knowledge – absolute (divine/other world) o Socrates o Sophists  Sophistic  contingent  relative  Gorgias  Isocrates  Protagoras  Romans o republic  Cicero o empire  Quintilian  rise of Christianity o Augustine  God  revelation medieval (dark, middle ages/400 CE-1400)  Christine de Pizan Renaissance (1400-1700)  Peter Ramus  God  syllogism/science (version of Platonic) Enlightenment (1700-1800)  Francis Bacon  empiricists/induction  John Locke  empiricists/induction  David Hume  empiricists/induction th 20 century  Kenneth Burke  rhetoric creates knowledge  social constructionists  rhetoric as drama  Michel Foucault  rhetoric creates knowledge  social constructionists  power  I.A. Richards  rhetoric creates knowledge  social constructionists  meaning  Gloria Anzaldua  language and identity Smith’s article “An Introduction to Rhetoric”  intrapersonal rhetoric  involves convincing the self o how we persuade self is often how we persuade others  rhetorical situation o Lloyd Bitzer  exigence (problem that needs to be addressed)  audience (rhetorical  the people whom you are addressing that can be agents of change, receptive)  constraints (available means of persuasion/of the situation – location, scene, how does it affect you) o situation comes first (exigence)  invites (prescribes) a “fitting” response  positive modification o Vatz  rhetor is first  create an exigence Sophists  build the better illusion  knowledge – derived from senses (faulty)  always dealing with false knowledge  truth  subjective, contextual contingent  debate  pitting fake opinions  rhetoric  stability in world of chaos  kairos: ideal timing, opportune moment  chronos: measured time Protagoras  way to measure the best illusion through words, criteria  subjective perception = knowledge  incapable of knowing absolute truth  father of debate  dissoi logoi  first, perhaps most famous  humans in control of own destiny  measure of things  others could convince you of a better illusion  theory and practice  need and inform each other  agnostic  banishment from Athens Gorgias  from Leontini, Sicily  audience  awareness, poetic techniques, gesticulations  rhetoric is a drug  euphoria, heal, magical  provisional knowledge  ceremonial rhetoric  epideictic Isocrates  Sophist?  studied with Protagoras and Gorgias  stage fright  teacher  virture and arête 4 reasons to not blame Helen of Troy for the 10 Year War  fell in love o affliction clouds our judgement  fate of gods  by force/rape  by persuasion, by rhetoric 3 ways rhetor persuades  use words and false knowledge in ways that makes opinion acceptable  deliver non-truth with great style  engage in debates  convincing Sophists  Gorgias, Protagoras, Isocrates  no absolute, transcendent knowledge  relative contingent contextual subjective  rhetoric  epistemic  created meaning, knowledge, reality  objective: build the better illusion (in the current moment – kairos)  virtue (arête)  speakers, writers, teachers Plato  hypocrite – sophistic tricks  noble rhetoric = good rhetoric  dialectic (connects with souls)  hierarchical – philosopher king  hated democracy  novmenal world  perfect forms  souls (recall what our souls already know/w
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