INR 3003 Lecture Notes - Lecture 41: Osama Bin Laden, Deobandi, Guerrilla Warfare

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9 Feb 2017
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11/29 Militant Jihadism to International Terrorism
1. Afghan war 1979-1989
a. Deobandi fundamentalism
i. Presence in Pakistan and Afghanistan
ii. Ties to wahhabism
b. Taliban
c. Mujahedeen
d. Support of Al Qaeda
e. Role of the US
2. How widespread is extremist Islam?
a. Evidence of dissent
i. Ex. Arab spring
b. Threatened groups
3. Back to the question: why do they hate us?
4. Why terrorism?
5. Intentions f terrorism
a. Asymmetrical warfare
b. Demonstration effect
6. Transnational terrorism
Afghan war
During age of globalization
o Fundamentalist approach of Islam creates a divide (Henry Now) in the
same way that communism did during the Cold War
Extremist and radicals are willing to use terrorism to achieve their goals
o Looking at this, we see rejection of western values-rejects modernity,
triumphs nation-state system to destroy Uma
Soviet afghan war 1979-1989
o Modern nation-state, impact of past and present imperialism,
instability all combine to create an explosive war in the middle east
Deobandi and deobandism fundamentalism
Deoban, India (northern India) 1867
Religious school forms as reformist tradition
o Reform was focused on the concerns of the changing religion, wanting
to go back to the simple life of Mohammad and the fundamentals of
the religion
o Placed heavy emphasis on education and individual training
Individual responsible for own religious progress- had to read
Quran for themselves and find peace on their own
Similar to wahhabism
o Think of the denominations within the protestant churchthis is how
the suuni religion was
o British controlled India at this time
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Deobandism does not develop with a relation with the
governing power like wahhabismseparate from govt.
Govt. hostile towards its development
More of a religious community than subservient to the state
Loyalty should be to the religion before the state
Presence of Pakistan and Afghanistan
o Terrorist organizations do not recognize state linesthink they are
fluid
o Deobandis believe they have the right to wage militant jihad to protect
Islam
Presence of deobandism in Afghanistan (supported by Pakistan and
Wahhabis)
o 1978 Marxist movement comes to power in Afghanistan with a lot of
opposition
o Not a unified country
o USSR sends in red army to support Marxist army
o There is already a negative reaction growing towards western powers
in the middle east
Destroyed the Uma
Having westerns was imposing western values
Promoting communism which promotes atheism war
Afghan tribes rise to occasion to rival soviets
Known as freedom fighters or mujahedeen
Not strong enough to fight on their own flee and seek
refuge
Being equipped with militant ideology or religion
o Taliban or students of Islam
Osama Bin Laden funded Al Qaeda army
o Incredibly wealthy
o Fought himself in the war
o Becomes a hero to the Mujuhadin
USSR is involved aka US is indirectly involved
o Through CIA and Pakistan
Becomes proxy war
US involved in gulf war
o Go to suaid Arabia to fight against Iraq
Led to decline of Taliban power
We were not going to take down the Saudis but there was a
discrepancy between the Saudi govt and the people that we
wanted to rectify
o Prevent Kuwait from being taken over
o Bin Laden furious that the Saudis chose the US and allowed the US to
come
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When the war erupted, bin Laden was just as willing to go to
war against Iraq and petitioned to allow Al Qaeda to fight but
the Saudis said no
Instead of choosing a muslim force, they chose US and
this
1996 declares war on US
Did not go home after
Taliban brought to power Al Qaeda power
Allows al qaeda to grow
Only 3 countries recognized the talibani regime as legit
o Pakistan, untied arab emirates, Saudi Arabia
How widespread is extremist Islam?
When US is chosen over Al Qaeda, Bin Laden targets US
Extremism developed through this conflict
o Moderate Muslims do not agree with the involvement of the west as a
bad thingmany appreciate our involvement
Extremists see western involvement as destructive
Publicity
o Not important to report on peaceful Muslims living peaceful lives
o We report on terrorism inflates our perception that terrorism is
more pervasive and widespread and universal for all Muslims
Lot of voices within Islam
o No uniformity
o Diversity in Islam
Evidence of dissent
Arab spring
o Uprisings in easer countries
Some calling for democracy, some reacting against ultra
conservative regimes
o Focus on Egypt
Had a dictator, during Arab spring people rose up against him
and we see a regime change from dictatorship to elections
o Shows that we cannot say all Muslims are terrorists because during
this time, many countries were rejecting extremism
Threatened groups
Who is threatened
o Not just US
o More Muslims are killed by radical Islamists than non-Muslims
Target those within their own communities that disagree with
them
o International terrorism is very small part of what is actually taking
place
Radical groups operate a lot like gangs
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