PSB2000 The human nervous system.docx

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PSB 2000
Stacey Mc Callister

1. The human nervous system a. CNS: brain and spinal cord b. PNS: nerves outside brain and outside spinal cord i. Somatic ii. Autonomic 1. Sympathetic a. Fight or flight 2. Parasympathetic a. Rest and digest 2. Directional terms: brain a. Dorsal: top b. Ventral: bottom c. Anterior: front d. Posterior: back e. Superior: above f. Inferior: below g. Lateral: toward side h. Medial: toward midline (center) 3. Directional terms: planes a. Horizontal: across b. Sagittal: seen from side c. Coronal: front 4. Directional terms: general a. Proximal: close to point of origin b. Distal: distant from point of origin c. Ipsilateral: same side d. Contralateral: opposite side 5. Gray vs. White Matter a. Gray: cell bodies and dendrites b. White: myelinated axons 6. Parts of the nervous system a. Lamina: row or layer of cell bodies separated from others by axons and dendrites b. Column: set of cells that carries messages c. Tract: set of axons in CNS d. Nerve and ganglion: cluster of neuron cell bodies e. Gyri: protuberances on the surface of the brain f. Sulci: fold or groove that separates one gyrus from another g. Fissure: a long, deep, sulcus 7. Spinal cord: Bell-Magendie Law a. Entering dorsal roots carry sensory information b. Exiting ventral roots carry motor information to the muscles and glands i. Dorsal – sensory ii. Ventral – motor 8. A few more terms a. Rostral – noseward b. Caudal – tailward c. Parasagittal – to the side of the sagittal d. Sagittal – down the center 9. Sympathetic Nervous System a. Nerves prepare organs for vigorous activity b. “fight or flight” i. Increases heart and breathing ii. Decreases digestion iii. Dilates pupils c. Chains of ganglia left and right of spinal cord i. Thoracic and lumbar regions d. Axons connect ganglia to spinal cord e. Sympathetic ganglia: i. Closely linked ii. Act in sympathy with each other f. Expends energy g. Short preganglionic axons (NT: Acetylcholine) h. Long postganglionic axons (NT: Norepinephrine) 10.Parasympathetic Nervous System a. Vegetative, nonemergency functions b. Para: “beside” or “related to” c. Opp d. Conserves energy e. Long preganglionic axons (NT: Acetylcholine) f. Short postganglionic axons (NT: Acetylcholine) 11.Enteric Nervous System a. Controls gastrointestinal system b. Functions autonomously i. “Separate brain” ii. Sympathetic and parasympathetic can modify c. Many NTs (30): i. Ach ii. DA iii. Ser 12.Brain: 3 major divisions a. Forebrain i. Thinking, perceiving, emotion and memory, drive related behaviors like eat drink and sex ii. Cortex, structures deep to cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus b. Midbrain i. Sensory pathways, visual and auditory processing ii. Top of brain stem c. Hindbrain i. Some motor control, reflexes like breathing and heart ii. Bottom of brainstem (pons and medulla) 13.Brainstem (WILL NOT BE TESTED ON) a. Medulla b. Pons c. Midbrain d. Central structures to forebrain 14.Cranial Nerves a. 12 pairs b. general function is sensory and motor for head and face c. Some are autonomic d. Most enter/exit the ventral surface of the brainstem 15.Hindbrain a. Medulla i. Vital reflexes; drugs/damage can be fatal b. Pons (bridge) i. Crossing axons c. Cerebellum i. Balance and coordination, direction of movement, coordinated tasks 16.Midbrain a. Superior and inferior colliculi i. Sensory processing especially seeing and hearing b. Periaqueductal gray i. Pain c. Substantia nigra i. Parkinson‟s disease 1. Deteriorates ii. Responsible for dopamine release 17.Forebrain a. Thalamus i. Pair of structures ii. Sensory info  thalamus  cortex iii. Cortex sends info back to thalamus iv. Filters information v. Also involved in systems like memory, emotions, and motor b. Hypothalamus i. Conveys messages to pituitary gland 1. Alters hormone release ii. Involved in motivated behavior 1. Feeding 2. Drinking 3. Temperature regulation 4. Sexual behavior
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