Class Notes (1,100,000)
US (480,000)
FSU (4,000)
Lecture 22

PSY-2012 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Base Rate Fallacy, Phonological Dyslexia, Prefrontal Cortex

Course Code
Timothy Kutta

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Psychology: the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior
Course ID: psychology21217
Iclicker second edition
- William James- founder of American psychology
- As a discipline. Psychology spans many levels of analysis
- Scientific theory- explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world
- Hypothesis- testable prediction derived from a scientific theory
1. Human behavior is difficult to predict- actions are multiply determined (produced by
many factors) = biology, culture, psychology
2. Psychological influences are rarely independent of each other- many factors that may
3. Individual differences among people- individual differences= variations among people in
their thinking, emotion, personality, or behavior. These help explain why people respond
differently to the same situation.
4. People influence one another- Reciprocal Determinism- we mutually influence each
other’s behavior. Makes it hard to draw conclusions about causation
Chapter 2: research methods
- How the mind works?
- Reverse engineering the mind
- Human psychology is complex
Imagine creating a robot that can-
Walk (variability), see, speech recognition, object tracking, learn
(categorize the world) (heuristics- shortcut)
The mind is-
A system of mental modules/ mechanism
o Information processing
Designed by natural selection to solve problems our ancestors faced
o Shaped by evolution
o Know the names = Tooby and Cosmides or the ones who
pioneered human psychology
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o Evolutionary psychology is a contentious topic and some behaviors
are biologically adaptive, some are not
- How does the mind work?
Probabilistic assumptions
It takes short-cuts
It has blind spots
- (((((((know the selected areas of the cerebral cortex))))))
- Prefrontal Cortex- executive functioning and influences various aspects of behavior and
- How we can be fooled-
Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that we use daily
They reduce the cognitive energy required to solve problems but… we
oversimplify reality
Rich people live in mansions and drive nice cars
Does every rich person do that?
- Common heuristics
Kahneman and Tversky
Representatives Heuristic
o People tend to judge the probability of an event by finding a
‘comparable known’ event and assuming that the probabilities will
be similar
o Based on stereotypes, prototypes, etc
17 23 54 65 8 compared to (lottery) 1 2 3 4 5
Availability Heuristic
o We make a judgement based on more specific memories
o We make a judgement based on what we can remember rather than
complete data
o Make an educated guess based on how easy the item comes to
Base rate fallacy- we ignore how common behaviors actually occur in our
Cognitive bias:
Hindsight bias- knew it all along
Overconfident- tendency to overestimate our ability to make predictions
- Expatiation/ co-opting- use of an existing structure to solve a new problem
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version