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Lecture 22

PSY-2012 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Base Rate Fallacy, Phonological Dyslexia, Prefrontal Cortex


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY-2012
Professor
Timothy Kutta
Lecture
22

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Psychology:
Psychology: the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior
Course ID: psychology21217
Iclicker second edition
- William James- founder of American psychology
- As a discipline. Psychology spans many levels of analysis
- Scientific theory- explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world
- Hypothesis- testable prediction derived from a scientific theory
1. Human behavior is difficult to predict- actions are multiply determined (produced by
many factors) = biology, culture, psychology
2. Psychological influences are rarely independent of each other- many factors that may
cause
3. Individual differences among people- individual differences= variations among people in
their thinking, emotion, personality, or behavior. These help explain why people respond
differently to the same situation.
4. People influence one another- Reciprocal Determinism- we mutually influence each
other’s behavior. Makes it hard to draw conclusions about causation
9/7/16
Chapter 2: research methods
- How the mind works?
- Reverse engineering the mind
- Human psychology is complex
Imagine creating a robot that can-
Walk (variability), see, speech recognition, object tracking, learn
(categorize the world) (heuristics- shortcut)
The mind is-
A system of mental modules/ mechanism
o Information processing
Designed by natural selection to solve problems our ancestors faced
o Shaped by evolution
o Know the names = Tooby and Cosmides or the ones who
pioneered human psychology
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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o Evolutionary psychology is a contentious topic and some behaviors
are biologically adaptive, some are not
- How does the mind work?
Causality
Coincidence
Inferences
Probabilistic assumptions
Heuristics
It takes short-cuts
It has blind spots
- (((((((know the selected areas of the cerebral cortex))))))
- Prefrontal Cortex- executive functioning and influences various aspects of behavior and
personality
- How we can be fooled-
Heuristics
Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that we use daily
They reduce the cognitive energy required to solve problems but… we
oversimplify reality
Rich people live in mansions and drive nice cars
Does every rich person do that?
- Common heuristics
Kahneman and Tversky
Representatives Heuristic
o People tend to judge the probability of an event by finding a
‘comparable known’ event and assuming that the probabilities will
be similar
o Based on stereotypes, prototypes, etc
17 23 54 65 8 compared to (lottery) 1 2 3 4 5
Availability Heuristic
o We make a judgement based on more specific memories
o We make a judgement based on what we can remember rather than
complete data
o Make an educated guess based on how easy the item comes to
mind
Representativeness
Base rate fallacy- we ignore how common behaviors actually occur in our
environment
Cognitive bias:
Hindsight bias- knew it all along
Overconfident- tendency to overestimate our ability to make predictions
- Expatiation/ co-opting- use of an existing structure to solve a new problem
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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