An attempt to create or simulate reality on stage. Weird in the 20th century to talk about it because we are used to it in film. Russian director/teacher/theorist konstantin stanislavski helped define realist theater. Founded the moscow arts theatre and produced plays by some of tolstoy and chekhov. Wrote seminal works on the art of acting: an actor prepares; building a. Inspired actors and acting teachers: sanford meisner, michael chekhov, System became known as the method or method acting. Henrik ibsen: norwegian playwright who has been called the founder of the movement, though only a portion of his plays could be considered. Charles darwin: his studies on the effects of heredity and environment influenced thought on how characters developed. Auguste comte: french philosopher, considered by some to be the first sociologist who examined cause and effect in nature through precise observation. Karl marx: the social philosopher who espoused the redistribution of wealth.