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Biology 1510 Aug27.docx

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BIOL 1510
Spencer/ Choi

Aug27 – Tree Thinking 8/27/2012 11:04:00 AM Stratigraphy:  Order of rock layers Superposition:  In a vertical sequence of sedimentary or volcanic rocks, a higher rock unit is younger than a lower one. o Down = older o Up = younger Original Horizontality:  Rock layers were originally deposited close to horizontal Inclusion:  A structure that is included in another is older than the including structure Unconformity:  Gaps in the rock record o From erosion Uniformitarianism:  Geologic processes that operated in the past were constrained by the same physical laws that operate today Radioactive Decay:  Radioactive parent atoms breakdown to known daughter atoms at known rates  Relates to geologic time o  These are not completely accurate for Carbon 14- Nitrogen 14 because of the atom bombs that were set up o Ex: How old is a fossil that has a 14C/12C ration of ~1/32 of a present day organism.  ½^n = 1/32  n=5 half lives  1 half life of 14C=5730
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