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International Affairs
INTA 1110
Tarun Chaudhary

9/6/12 From the Emergence of Nation States to the Modern Era Historical Sketches - The State System o Adjoining states in Europe recognized each other’s legitimacy and independence o No recognition of states outside of Europe o The concept of “international law” or diplomacy was beginning to emerge o Stability was maintained through a Balance of Power - Post 1648 (Peace of Westphalia) o Monarchies become the standard gov’t in Europe o Wars were frequent but were not necessarily ideological in their origins  Different from 30 Years War which was essentially the last religious/nationalistic war in Europe for some time o Ottoman Empire began to decline in power while Britain and Russia began to gain power o American Revolution (1776) o French Revolution (1789-1799)  Start of nationalism o Both American and French revolutions changed the perceptions of their national character o “Dynastic monarchies were threatened by the rise of mass-mobilization and revolutionary leaders” - Napoleon and War o Rise of Napoleon  Began as 2 Lt. in French military  Works his way up to Brigadier General during revolution  Seized power in 1799 (Coup de Brumair)  2 Dec. 1804 crowned himself emperor  Napoleonic Wars 1803-1815  New Era in Warfare  Mass conscription - nationalism  Organizational genius  General staff allowed larger armies  Led to the eventual concept of TOTAL WAR  Other European powers wanted France to revert to a pre-Napoleonic gov’t  Led to the eventual dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the British ascended as the new global hegemon - Clausewitz o Prussian officer during Napoleonic Wars o Began to write a comprehensive history on war called On War o Contributed to the evolution of modern realism o Clausewitz’s Dictum:  War is “a continuation of political activity by other means”  Bottom line: war is the ultimate political tool - Congress of Vienna o Treaty of Paris 1814  Ended Napoleonic Wars  Reestablished Bourbon throne in France  Sought to establish a “permanent European balance of power”  Austria  UK  Russia  Prussia  France
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